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Full text of "The larvæ of the British butterflies and moths"

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OF 






COMPARATIYE ZOOLOGY, 






AT HARVARD COLLEGE, CAMBRIKE, MASS. 






jFounSetr i>s ptttate suiwcrfjtfon, fn 1861. 






Deposited by ALEX. AGASSIZ. 






u No. H, ^ r 






d • '/. 





MAY II 1897 



THE 



RAT SOCIETY 



o 



INSTITUTED MDCCCXLIV. 




This volume is issued to the Subscribers to the Ray Society for 

the Year 1894. 



LONDON 



MDCCCXCVII. 



THE LAEV^E 



OE THE 



BKITISH BUTTERFLIES 



AND 



MOTHS. 



BY 
(THE late) 

WILLIAM BUCKLER. 



EDITED BY 



GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S. 



Vol. VII. 

(THE FIRST PORTION OF THE GEOMETRY. 



LONDON; 
PRINTED FOR THE RAY SOCIETY. 

MDCCCXCVII. 



MCZ LIBRARY 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY 
CAMBRIDGE. MA USA 



PRINTED BY AD LAUD AND SOX, 
BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE, E.C., AND 20, HANOVER SQUARE, W» 



PBEFACE. 



The present volume contains the first portion of 
the Geometrse; it is intended to complete the Group 
in Vol. VIII. 

I much regret the delay in the appearance of this 
volume, which is entirely due to the dilatoriness of 
the artist and lithographer employed on the plates. 

The Ray Society is once more indebted to Mr. 
G. 0. Bignell for supplying a list of parasites known 
to affect the species treated of ; and I have again 
to thank my friend Mr. W. Denison Roebuck for his 
assistance to myself in editing the volume. 



GEO. T. PORRITT. 



Crosland Hall, 

huddeesfield ; 

November lWi, 1896. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. VII. 









PAGE 


Venilia maculata . .1 


Metrocampa margaritata 










1 


Eurymene dolobraria 










3 


Ennomos tiliaria . 










4 


— fuscantaria 










5 


Himera pennaria . 










7 


Phigalia pilosaria 










9 


Nyssia hispidaria . 




■ 






10 


— lapponaria 










11 


Cleora glabraria . 










16 


Boavmia abietaria . 










20 


— cinctaria 










24 


— roboraria 










27 


— ; consortaria 










32 


Tephrosia consonaria 










34 


— crepuscularia . 










35 


— laricaria (biundularia) 










37 


— extevsaria 










38 


— punctulata 










42 


Gnophos obscurata 










43 


Dasydia obfuscata 










45 


Boletobia f uliginaria 










47 


Nemoria viridata . 










52 


Iodis vernaria 










53 


Phorodesma bajulavia 










56 


— smaragdaria . 










59 


Epliyra punctaria . 










62 


— omicronaria 










63 


— orbicularia 










65 


— pendularia 










66 


Hyria auroraria 










. 67 



Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



Asthena candidata 

— sylvata 

— blomeri 
Eupisteria heparata 
Acidalia ochrata . 

— rubricata 

— scutulata 

— bisetata 

— trigeminata 

— contiguaria 

— rusticata 

— osseata (interjectaria) 

— liolosericeata . 

— virgularia (incanaria) 

— circellata 

— ornata 

— incanata (promutata) 

— marginepunctata (straminata) 

— subsericeata 

— mancuniata 

— immutata 

— remutata 

— strigilata 

— imitaria 

— emutaria 

— degeneraria 

— emarginata 
Cabera exanthemata 
Corycia punctata (temerata) 
Aventia flexula 
Strenia clathrata . 
Lozogramma petraria 
Selidosema plumaria 
Fidonia atomaria . 

— brunneata (pinetaria) 
Scoria dealbata 
Lythria purpuraria 
Aspilates gilvaria . 
Abraxas grossulariata 
Ligdia adustata 
Hybernia leucophaearia 

— aurantiaria 
Anisopteryx sescularia 



PAGE 

71 

. 72 

. 75 

. 79 

. 80 

. 86 

. 90 

91 

. 92 

94 

. 95 

97 

. 99 

. 101 

. 106 

. 107 

. 108 

. 110 

. 114 

. 115 

. 118 

. 120 

. 121 

. 122 

. 124 

. 127 

. 130 

. 132 

. 133 

. 134 

. 137 

. 138 

. 139 

. 140 

. 141 

. 143 

. 144 

. 147 

. 150 

. 151 

. 153 

. 155 

. 157 



CONTENTS. 



IX 







TAGE 


Cheimatobia brumata 


. 


. 160 


— boreata 




. 160 


Oporabia dilutata . 




. 161 


— filigramrnaria . 


. 


. 163 


Larentia csesiata . 


. 


. 166 


— flavicinctata (ruficinctata) 


. 167 


— olivata 


. . 


. 170 



List of Parasites bred from those species of the Geometrina 

which are included in this volume . . . 172 



Index 



175 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE SPECIES 



IN THIS VOLUME. 



HETEROCERA. 



Group GEOMETRINA. 

Family Otjrapterygid^. 
Ouvapteryx sambncaria 



PAGE 



PLATE 



OVI, fig. 1 



Family Ennomid^i. 










Epione vespertaria . . . . ... C VI, fig. 2 


„ apiciaria 








OVI, fig. 3 


„ advenaria 








CVI, fig. 4 


Rumia crataegata 








CVI, fig. 5 


Venilia maculata 






1 


CVI, fig. 6 


Angerona prunaria . 








OVI, fig. 7 


Metrocampa margaritata 






1 


CVI, fig. 8 


Ellopia fasciaria 








CVII, fig. 1 


Eurymene dolobraria 






3 


CVII, fig. 2 


Pericallia syringaria 








CVII, fig. 3 


Selenia illunaria 








CVII, fig. 4 


„ lunaria . 








CVII, fig. 5 


„ illustraria 








CVII, fig. 6 


Odontopera bidentata 








CVIII, fig. 1 


Crocallis elinguaria 








CVIII, fig. 2 


Ennomos alniavia 








CVIII, fig. 3 


,, tiliaria 






4 


CVIII, fig. 4 


„ fuscantaria 






5 


CIX, fig. 1 


, , erosaria 








CIX, fig. 2 


„ angularia . 








CIX, fig. 3 


Himera pennaria 






7 


CIX, fig. 4 


Family Amphidasid^. 


Phigalia pilosaria . 




. 


9 


CIX, fig. 5 



Xll 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE SPECIES. 



Family Amphidasid^e (continued) 
Nyssia zonaria . 
,, liispidaria 
„ lapponaria 
Biston hirtaria 
Amphidasis prodromavia 
,, betularia 

Family Boarmid^e. 

Herueroplnla abrupt aria . 
,, glabraria 
,, licheharia 
Boarmia repandata . 
., rhomboid aria 
., abietaria 
., cinctaria 
,, roboraria . 
,, consortaria 
Tephrosia consonaria 

crepusculavia . 
laricaria (biundnlari 
extersaria 
punctulata 
Gnophos obscurata . 
Dasydia obfuscata 

Family Boletobid^:. 
Boletobia fuliginaria 

Family Geometrid^e. 

Pseudoterpna cytisaria 
Geometra papilionaria 
Nemoria viiidata 
Iodis vera aria . 
,, lactearia . 
Phorodesma bajularia 

„ smaragdaria 

Hemithea thymiaria 

Family Ephyrid^e. 
Ephyra porata . 

punctaria . 

trilinearia . 
omicronaria 

orbicnlaria . 

pendularia . 



a) 



AGE 


PLATE 




CX, fig. 1 


10 


CX, fig. 2 


11 






CX, fig. 3 




CX, fig. 4 




CX, fig. 5 




CXI, fig. 1 


16 


CXI, fig. 2 




CXI, fig. 3 




CXI, fig. 4 




CXI, fig. 5 


20 


CX1I, fig. 1 


24 


CXII, fig. 2 


27 


CXII, fig. 3 


32 


CXII, fig. 4 


34 


CXI1I, fig. 1 


35 


CXIII, fig. 2 


37 


CXIII, fig. 3 


38 


CXIII, fig. 4 


42 


CXIII, fig. 5 


43 


CXIY, fig. 1 


45 


CXIV, fig. 2 



47 





CXIV, fig. 3 




CXIV, fig. 4 


52 


CXIV, fig. 5 


53 


CXV, fig. 1 




CXV, fig. 2 


56 


CXV, fig. 3 


59 






CXV, fig. 4 




CXV, fig. 5 


62 


CXV, fig. 6 




CXV, fig. 7 


63 


CXV, fig. 8 


65 


CXV, fig. 9 


66 


CXV, fig. 10 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE SPECIES. 



xm 



PAGE 



Family ACIDALID^. 




Hyria auroraria . 


67 


Asthena luteata 




ji 


candidata . . . . 


71 


j? 


sylvata . 


72 


») 


blomeri . 


75 


Eupisteria heparata 


79 


Yennsia cambrica . 




Acidalia ochrata 


80 


55 


rubricata . 


86 


55 


scutulata 


90 


95 


bisetata 


91 


55 


trigeminata 


. 92 


55 


contiguaria 


94 


55 


rusticata 


95 


55 


osseata 


97 


55 


holosericeata 


99 


59 


virgularia . 


101 


5 5 


circellata 


. 106 


5! 


ornata 


. 107 


!IJ 


incanata 


. 108 


55 


margin epunctatu 


110 


55 


subsericeata 


. 114 


55 


mancuniata 


115 


55 


immutata 


. 118 


55 


remutata 


. 120 


55 


fumata 




55 


strigilata 


121 


55 


imitaria 


122 


55 


emutaria 


. 124 


55 


avcrsata 




55 


inornata 




55 


degeneraria 


. 127 


55 


emarginata 


130 


Bradyepetes amataria 




Family Cae 


ERiD-ac. 




Cabera pusaria 




55 


exanthemata 


. 132 


Corycia 

55 


punctata 
taminata . 


133 


Aleueie 


pictaria . 





PLATE 




OXVI, 


fig. 


1 


CXYI, 


fig. 


2 


CXYI, 


fig. 


3 


CXYI, 


fig. 


4 


CXYI, 


fig. 


5 


CXYI, 


fig. 


6 


CXYI, 


fig. 


7 


CXYII, 


fig. 


1 


CXYII, 


fig. 


2 


CXYII, 


fig. 


3 


CXVII, 


fig. 


4 


CXYII, 


fig. 


5 


CXYII, 


fig. 


6 


CXYII, 


fig- 


7 


CXVIII, 


fig. 


1 


CXYIII, 


fig- 


2 


CXVIII, 


fig. 


3 


CXYIII, 


fig- 


4 


CXYIII, 


fig. 


5 


CXYIII, 


fig- 


6 


CXVIII, 


fig. 


7 


CXYIII, 


fig. 


8 


CXIX, 


fig- 


1 


CX1X, 


fig. 


2 


CXIX, 


fig- 


3 


CXIX, 


fig- 


4 


CXIX, 


fig. 


5 


CXIX, 


fig- 


6 


CXIX, 


fig. 


7 


CXIX, 


fig- 


8 


CXIX, 


fig. 


9 


CXIX, i 


1 

!g- ■ 


L0 


cxx, 


fig. 


1 



CXX, fig. 2 
CXX, fig. 3 
CXX, fig. 4 
CXX, fig. 5 
CXX, fig. 6 



XIV 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE SPECIES. 



Family Macarid^e. 
Aventia flexula 
Macaria alternata 
,, notata 
„ liturata 
Halia wavaria * 



PAGE 



134 



PLATE 
CXXI, fig. 

CXXI, fig. 
CXXI, fig. 
CXXI, fig. 
CXXI, fig. 



Family Fidonid^e. 
Strenia clathrata 
Lozogramma petraria 
Numeria pulveraria 
Msesia belgiaria 
Selidosema plumaria 
Fidonia atomaria 
„ piniaria 
„ brunneata 
„ limbaria 
Minoa euphorbiata 
Scoria dealbata 
Sterrha sacraria 
Lythria purpuraria 
Aspilates strigillaria 
„ citraria 
,, gilvaria 



137 
138 



139 
140 

141 



143 
144 

147 



CXXI, 

CXXI, 

CXXII, 

CXXII, 

CXXII, 

CXXII, 

CXXII, 

CXXII, 

CXXII, 

CXXIII, 

CXXIII, 

CXXIII, 



fig. 6 
fig. 7 
fig.l 
fig. 2 
fig. 3 
fig. 4 
fig. 5 
fig. 6 
fig. 7 
fig.l 
fig. 2 
fig. 3 



CXXIII, fig. 4 
CXXIII, fig. 5 
CXXIII, fig. 6 



Family Zerenid^. 

Abraxas grossulariata 

„ ulmata 
Ligdia adustata 
Lomaspilis marginata 



150 
151 



CXXIV, fig. 1 
CXXIV, fig. 2 
CXXIV, fig. 3 
CXXIV, fig. 4 



Family Ligid^j. 

Pachycnemia hippocastanaria 



CXXIV, fig. 5 



Family Hybernid^. 

Hybernia rupicapraria 
,, leucophsearia 
,, aurantiaria 
„ progemmaria 
„ defoliaria 

Anisopteryx a^scularia 



153 
155 



157 



CXXV, fig. 1 
CXXV, fig. 2 
CXXV, fig. 3 
CXXV, fig. 4 
CXXV, fig. 5 
CXXVI, fig. 1 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE SPECIES. 



XV 





PAGE 


PLATE 


amily Larentidje. 






Cheimatobia brumata 


160 


CXXVI, fig. 2 


„ boreata 


160 


OXXVI, fig. 3 


Oporabia dilutata 


161 


CXXVI, fig. 4 


„ filigrammaria . 


163 


CXXVI, fig. 5 


Larentia didymata . 




.. CXXVII, fig. 1 


., multistrigaria . 




... CXXVII, fig. 2 


,, csesiata 


166 


CXXVII, fig. 3 


,, flavicinctata 


167 


.. CXXVII, fig. 4 


„ salicaria . 




CXXVII, fig. 5 


,, olivaria . 


170 


CXXVII, fig. 6 


,, miaria . 




CXXVII, fig. 7 



THE -LAIiYM 



OF THE 



BRITISH MOTHS. 



Venilia maoulata. 
Plate CVI, fig. 6. 



The pupa of Venilia maculata is three-eighths of an 
inch long, thick and plump in proportion, tapering a 
little from the middle towards the head, and more 
towards the tail, which terminates in a knob with a 
central spike surrounded with eight fine bristles 
having their extremities curved round. Its colour is 
dark purplish-brown, pitted or punctured, and very 
shining, excepting the divisions between the abdo- 
minal segments, which are smooth, without gloss, and 
of a dull brick-red colour. 

The moths emerged on the 13th and 17th of May, 
1873. 

The larvae fed on wood- sage, Tencrium scorodonia. 
(William Buckler, May, 1873 ; Note Book II, 10.) 



Mbtrocampa margaritata. 

Plate CVI, fig. 8. 

Larva nearly full-grown, measuring an inch and a 
quarter to an inch and three-eighths in length. Belly 
quite flat, on surface very wrinkled transversely; the 

•vol. vn. 1 



2 MKTROCAMPA MARGARITATA. 

edges of the sides are produced in a ridge, from which 
proceeds a fringe of fleshy filaments of a simple kind 
as in Catdcala. The colour of the belly and of the 
filaments is pale ashy grey, and a little shining. 

There are two pairs of ventral legs only, no rudi- 
mentary ones ; the first pair are rather less than the 
second pair. The anal legs are larger than the ventral 
ones. So that the larva has altogether twelve legs. 

The segments taper a little forwards from the ninth 
to the fourth, and behind from the tenth to the 
thirteenth. The back of the twelfth bears rather 
larger tubercles than the rest, and from these slopes 
suddenly down to the anal flap when seen in profile. 
The larva is rounded when viewed on the back, and it 
is seen to be a little thicker on the thoracic segments, 
which appear tumid in comparison with those behind 
them. It thickens again a little on the ninth and 
tenth segments, both on the back and sides, and from 
these the remainder taper a little to the anal extremity, 
and below the flap are three blunt points. The 
ventral legs of the tenth segment are better developed 
than those of the ninth. 

The skin is puffed, but rugose along the spiracular 
region, on the third and fourth segments, and deeply 
so towards the segmental divisions on the back. The 
upper surface of the back and sides is rounded. The 
tubercular warts are very small in the front dorsal 
pair, and a trifle larger in the hinder pair of each 
segment. 

The head is a little less in width than the second 
segment. 

In colour these larvae vary, some being of a light 
ochreous green, others drab colour, some brownish- 
grey, others of a dark purplish-grey, more or less 
freckled with darker. There is a faint indication of a 
paler grey dorsal series of markings, most distinct at 
the hinder part of each segment, and especially on the 
eighth segment, where there is an ash-coloured trian- 
gular patch on the side pointing forwards. 



METROOAMPA MARGARITA TA. 3 

The head is rounded at the sides, rather flat in front, 
which is ash- coloured, dark grey behind, a black cres- 
centic streak down each lobe, which separates the two 
colours, and the whole head is freckled with dark 
grey -brown. 

The tubercular dots are black, having the tips white, 
which in each hind pair melt on the back towards 
each other gradually. The legs are the same colour 
as the body. (William Buckler, 1872 ; Note Book I, 
p.. 176.) 



ElJRYMENE DOLOBRARIA. 

Plate CVII, fig. 2. 

Length of the larva an inch and a half; head 
notched and rounded on the crown, rather smaller 
than the second segment. When at rest, with the 
mouth tightly pressed to the legs, the first three seg- 
ments much resemble a miniature clog's head, the head 
of the larva representing the dog's nose, and the pro- 
tuberances of the third segment the ears and crown 
of the animal's head. Head reddish-brown, assuming 
a mottled appearance on the cheeks ; second and third 
segments blackish-brown, each increasing in size, the 
third considerably so, especially at the sides, giving 
the larva when at rest the singular appearance men- 
tioned above. Body, beyond the third segment, with 
the exception of the ninth, nearly uniform in size; 
dorsal surface reddish-brown. The fourth segment 
has four very small black dots, arranged transversely 
on the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth segments ; 
these dots are arranged in pairs, the hinder pair being 
rather farther apart than the other two ; the ninth 
segment bears a rounded protuberance of a colour 
slightly darker than that of the four preceding seg- 
ments, and bounded anteriorly by a black band ; the 
tenth, eleventh, and twelfth segments are of much 
the same shade as the main portion of the body, and 



4 EURYMENE DOLOBRARIA. 

have the four black dots nearer together longitudinally; 
the anterior pair on the ninth segment are situated 
just behind the black band ; the posterior pair behind 
the protuberance. The lateral skin-fold is of a lighter 
shade of brown than the dorsal surface ; the 
spiracles are black, surrounded by a light-coloured ring. 
The claspers and anal flap are of the dark reddish- 
brown of the second and third segments ; on the 
ventral surface the fifth and sixth segments are marked 
with two large black spots, situated in close proximity 
to each other; the spots on the seventh, eighth, and 
ninth segments are smaller and farther apart ; the 
light shade of the lateral skin-fold is continued on the 
posterior half of the ventral surface of the fifth, sixth, 
seventh, and eighth segments, in the anterior portion 
of which the spots are situated. 

I am indebted to Mr. J. Gr. Ross, of Bathampton, 
and Mr. Peters, of Crawley, for a supply of these 
larvse. (P. H. Jennings ; Ent., November, 1876, IX, 
254.) 



Bnnomos tiliaria. 

Plate CVIII, fig. 4. 

The larva of Ennomos tiliaria rests in a very stiff 
and stick-like position, with the claspers firmly 
attached to the twigs of Betula alba (birch), on which 
it feeds ; the head is porrected on the same plane as 
the second and third segments ; the legs are directed 
forwards, the second and third pairs being closely 
appressed to the pectoral surface of those segments ; 
the head is nearly equal in width to the second seg- 
ment, the face fiat, and the anterior margin squarely 
truncate ; the body gradually increases in size from 
the head to the twelfth segment, which is slightly the 
stoutest of the whole ; the fourth segment, bearing the 
third pair of legs, is somewhat produced on the ventral 
surface, and the legs are seated on the elevation ; their 



BNNOMOS TILIARIA. 5 

form is a crescentic curve, and their direction for- 
wards ; the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth 
segments are long in proportion to the width ; the 
sixth and ninth have transverse dorsal ridges, that on 
the sixth segment being decidedly the larger of the 
two ; the seventh segment has a transverse ventral 
series of four lumps or warts, each wart being trans- 
versely elongate. 

The colour of the head and body is grey and browu, 
except the ventral surface of the twelfth and thirteenth 
segments, which is glaucous-green. The thirteenth 
segment terminates in three points directed back- 
wards ; the middle one of these is very much smaller 
than the others. 

These larvas, for an ample supply of which I am 
indebted to Mr. Birchall, changed to chrysalids about 
the 16th of July, and to moths on the 1st of August. 
(Edward Newman; Ent., November, 1870, Y, 196.) 



Ennomos euscantaria. 
Plate CIX, fig. 1. 

Varieties of the Larva of Ennomos fuscantaria. — 
Having during the past summer (1864) made the 
notable discovery that the larva of this species varies 
more than (in my ignorance) I was pleased to think 
it did, I venture to give descriptions, made with Mr. 
Buckler's kind help, of the varieties that so far have 
become known to us. 

The larva may be generally described as elongate, 
with the true legs well developed, the third pair being 
sometimes of large proportions, and with two aual 
points. 

The variety which I first set eyes on gratified a 
crotchet of mine, inasmuch as it resembled the leaf- 
stalk of the ash, from which tree I beat it. In figure 
it was smooth ; in colour it was green on the back, 
with a subdorsal stripe of yellow ; the spiracular stripe 



6 ENNOMOS FUSCANTARIA. 

primrose-yellow, reaching to the mouth, and bordered 
above with deep green, which became lighter near the 
subdorsal line ; the belly apple-green ; two little warts 
on the twelfth segment ; the true legs black, the ventral 
legs tipped with crimson-brown, and the anal legs 
green. 

This I thought was the invariable pattern of E. 
fuscantaria, but last summer (1864) Dr. Knaggs sent 
me six larvae to rear for him, and I found that at their 
last moult some of them developed an entirely different 
appearance : to wit, the ground colour was reddish- 
grey, slightly mottled with greenish ; subdorsal yellow 
stripe scarcely visible ; spiracular line rather greener 
than the ground colour, and becoming yellowish from 
the second segment to the mouth ; across the third 
segment was a row of red-brown warts, the largest 
being on the sides ; large transverse red humps on the 
sixth and ninth segments, and very small ones on the 
eighth and twelfth ; lateral red warts on the fifth, 
sixth, and seventh, and a ventral hump on the seventh ; 
pale lateral warts on the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth ; 
the true legs crimson-brown, the third pair being very 
large. 

And Mr. Doubleday sent Mr. Buckler another larva, 
which appears intermediate between these two. It 
was nearly smooth, the ground colour a pale apple- 
green ; subdorsal and spiracular lines yellow, but not 
clearly denned; the last five segments suffused with 
pink ; two small red spots placed on a swelling at the 
seventh segment, two dorsal warts on the twelfth, 
small lateral warts on the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth ; 
on the third segment a short red-brown stripe running 
backwards from the spiracles to the middle of the 
back. (John Hellins, November 4th, 1864 ; E.M.M., 
January, 1865, I, 187.) 



HIMERA PENNARIA. 7 



HlMERA PENNARIA. 

Plate CIX, fig. 4. 

Note on the Egg, and some Peculiarity of Structure 
in the • Larva, of Himera pennaria. — Early last 
December (1880) Mr. D'TJrban put into my hands an 
ash twig gathered by a laudable butcher's boy at 
Exeter, whose attention had been caught by the 
appearance of a batch of eggs near the tip, I ought 
at once to have known to what species these eggs 
belonged, but, luckily, did not recognise them ; other- 
wise, probably, I should not have cared for them, and 
should have missed making an observation which, I 
think, deserves some notice. 

There were just 151 eggs, laid in nine rows, 
parallel with the stem of the twig, in most beautifully 
compact and regular order, the whole mass measuring 
rather more than three-eighths of an inch in length 
and about three- sixteenths in width, and firmly stuck 
together, and to the bark of the twig, by an abundant 
supply of shining light red cement. The shape of 
the egg is cylindrical, set upright on end, about one- 
thirtieth of an inch in height and one-forty-fifth of an 
inch in transverse measurement ; the top is rounded ; 
sometimes the cylindrical shape becomes somewhat 
hexagonal, from being squeezed in so closely on all 
sides; the shell is glossy, with a slight roughness 
round the top ; the colour pale green ; towards 
spring this changes to a pale reddish-brown, and 
again four or five days before the larva emerges to a 
blackish hue. The batch of empty egg-shells looks 
like a piece of Lilliputian honeycomb. 

The first larva was hatched on the 13th of April, 
1881, and the last that came out about a fortnight 
later. Some died in the egg ; I think, however, that 
the larvse at large were delayed this year by the cold 
nights, and that none, probably, were hatched till the 



8 HIMERA PENNARIA. 

end of April; at least, the larvae I have captured have 
been quite three weeks behind my larvae reared 
indoors. 

The young larva is about one-eighteenth of an inch 
in length, in colour dull black except the anal flap, 
which is pale brownish, as also are the legs, tipped, 
however, with black ; the usual spots palish brown 
with raised central black dot emitting a short, finely 
knobbed bristle ; as the larva feeds the colour grows 
paler, becoming a sort of dark olive with pale lines ; 
one, which I set apart for observation, moulted for 
the first time just a fortnight after hatching, and I 
noted that at this first moult there appeared the two 
projecting warts on the twelfth segment, which (with 
other circumstances) enabled me to recognise the 
species ; but I presently also noted another change 
which puzzled me greatly : I took these little larvae 
to be Himera pennaria — a species in which I had 
never before seen more than ten legs, nor had anyone 
described it with more than ten legs, but now there 
appeared a pair of undeveloped ventral legs on the ninth 
segment. As I have inferred, I certainly did not see 
these legs previous to the moult, nor do I think they 
were then to be seen, but what follows makes me wish 
I had made quite certain : this pair of legs continues 
through the second moult, becomes smaller after the 
third moult, and with the fourth moult disappears, the 
site being marked by a minute eminence, and after- 
wards by a little horny depressed plate ; and the larva, 
to all appearance, has but the ten legs with which it 
has always been credited. At their fullest develop- 
ment these extra legs are very tiny, still they are 
plainly enough to be seen, and are more like the 
rounded ventral legs of a Noctua than the spreading, 
clinging legs of a large Geometer; they have a black 
ring round them midway, and a circle of tiny black 
horny points where the usual circlet of hooks is 
found. 

Both Mr. Buckler and Dr. T. A. Chapman have 



HIMERA PENNARIA. 9 

confirmed my observation from examination of ex- 
amples which I have sent them, and we are now 
examining as many species of the large geometrous 
larvae as we can obtain, but so far without finding 
any evidence of a similar absorption or suppression 
of a leg once developed. In other species — as, for 
instance, ifl Anisopteryx xscularia (Ent. Mo. Mag., 
Oct. 1877, XIV, 113) we find such legs developed after 
a moult or two, but continuing to the last in the same 
proportionate size ; on the other hand, many Noctude 
when hatched have only two out of their four pairs 
of ventral legs of full size, but the other two by 
degrees grow larger, and at last take their full share 
in walking and holding fast. 

But in this case a pair of legs is developed, is of no 
use at any time, and by-and-by is again suppressed ; 
the only thing like it at all, which I can now call to 
mind, is the appearance / of two horns behind the 
head of the newly hatched larva of Centra vinula, 
which by degrees are absorbed and disappear ; still, 
this does not seem so strange as the appearance and 
subsequent disappearance of even a useless limb. 
(John Hellins, 9th June, 1881; E.M.M., July, 1881, 
XVIII, 33.) 



Phigalia pilosaria. 
Plate CIX, fig. 5. 

Distinguishing Characters of the Larvse of Nyssla 
hispidaria and Phigalia pilosaria. — I have before now 
been puzzled how to distinguish the larva? of these 
two species, and, indeed, have bred the moths of the 
one from what I had taken for thelarvse of the other; 
but this year, through the kindness of Mr. Batty, I 
have had the opportunity of settling this difficulty for 
myself, and I now venture to send a note of the most 
striking points of difference. 

Both larvse are alike in this, that they are very 



10 PHIGALIA PILOSARIA. 

knobby and warty ; they have eight pairs of dorsal 
and eight pairs of subdorsal warts on the fifth to the 
twelfth segments — both inclusive. They differ as 
follows : 

In N. hispidarid the warts, although not uniform 
in size throughout, yet do not vary so much ; the 
dorsal warts on the twelfth segment being bigger than 
any of the rest, and the biggest subdorsal warts being 
on the sixth segment. And then as to the colouring — 
there is a more uniform pattern and mottling of 
orange with grey or black. 

In Phigalia ■ pilosaria both the dorsal and the sub- 
dorsal warts of the sixth and seventh segments much 
exceed in size any of the rest ; and, together with 
some pale ochreous marks on the same segments, 
which begin on the sides and meet in the shape of a 
/\ on the back, form a distinguishing feature easily to 
be caught. (John Hellins; E.M.M., January, 1867, 
III, 185.) 



Nyssia hispidaeia. 
Plate OX, fig. 2. 

On the 19th of May, 1870, I received from Mr. J. 
P. Barrett, of Peckham, a few larvae, which were then 
rather more than half an inch in length, and were 
brown, with a double row of orange-coloured spots 
down the centre of the back. They grew very rapidly, 
being full-fed on June 1st, when I took the following 
description : 

Length about an inch and a half, of tolerable thick- 
ness in proportion to the length.' Head narrower 
than the second segment, retractile, flattened, and 
notched on the crown. Body irregular, thick on the 
anterior and posterior segments, thinner in the middle ; 
segmental divisions conspicuous, the anterior part of 
each segment being narrower than the posterior ; 



NYSSIA HISPIDABIA. 11 

along the spiracles on each side, and on each segment, 
is a small pyramidal hump, those on the sixth segment 
being larger than the others ; from each of these 
humps springs a single short hair. The usual tuber- 
cles distinct, black, those on the twelfth segment 
almost taking the character of humps, and lighter in 
colour than the others ; a single short stiff hair also 
springs from each of these. The skin has a wrinkled 
appearance. 

General colour of an almost uniform dark brown ; 
head chocolate, variegated with yellowish-brown. 
Dorsal line rather darker than the ground colour, and 
bordered on each side with a conspicuous interrupted 
line of rust- coloured marks ; between the tubercles 
and spiracular humps are two faint rust-coloured 
Hues ; there is also a good deal of this rust colour 
along the spiracles, which are pinkish encircled with 
black. A dull rust-coloured stripe (yellow on the 
ninth segment) extends along the centre of the belly. 
Legs chocolate and greyish-white alternately. 

Feeds on oak, and turns to a pupa beneath the 
surface of the ground. (George T. Porritt, June 23rd, 
1870; Ent., August, 1870, V, 141.) 



NYSSIA LAPPONAK1A. 

On the (5fch May, 1895, I received from Mr. W. 
M. Christy some ova of Nyssia lapponaria, which he 
very kindly sent to me for the purpose of figuring 
and describing the insect in its various stages ; and 
having done so, I have now the pleasure of publishing 
the following life-history and accompanying figures of 
the species through all its stages. 

The ovum is of a compressed oval form, with one 
end rather larger than the other, and measuring in its 
greatest diameter one-twenty-sixth of an inch ; the 
surface is delicately and beautifully reticulated with a 
quinquefarious pattern ; each cell is mapped out with 



12 NYSSIA LAPPONARIA. 

finely raised ridges. The colour is of a very clear 
bright greenish-yellow; a few days before hatching it 
deepens in colour, and gradually becomes deeper until, 
shortly before hatching, it assumes a very deep 
metallic blue-green hue. The ova hatched between 
5 and 6 p.m. on the 16th May. 

Directly after emergence the larva measures one- 
twelfth of an inch while extended ; if disturbed it 
falls, suspending itself by a web ; and if falling upon 
the ground, remains for a short time in a looped 
attitude. 

The larva in its first stage and when ten days old 
is one-sixth of an inch long, cylindrical, and of uniform 
thickness throughout; the ground colour is a deep 
dull black; the first segment has the anterior edge 
white, forming a collar and encircling the segment. 
Immediately behind the collar is a series of very 
minute warts, each beset with a short fine bristle. 
The fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth segments 
are each encircled with a number of pure white 
markings, consisting of fourteen on each segment 
(seven on either side) ; the dorsal pair are longest, and 
are separated by a medio-dorsal black line. These, as 
well as the two largest lateral spots and the lowest 
ventral one, have each a black central wart emitting a 
short whitish bristle ; the second, third, ninth, tenth, 
eleventh, and twelfth segments are principally spotted 
on the lateral region. The head is black, with white 
spots at the mouth. The legs and claspers are black. 
During the first stage the larvse fed upon both birch 
and whitethorn, and appeared to prefer the latter if 
one more than the other. The first moult occurred 
on 31st May. 

Before the second moult, twenty-one days old, it 
measures three-tenths of an inch in length ; the 
ground colour is lilac-brown, with fine white longi- 
tudinal lines running the entire length, which are 
dorsal, subdorsal, supersjairacular, and subspiracular. 
On the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth 



NYSSIA LAPPONARIA. 13 

segments are six lemon-yellow spots (three on each 
side), and of the same form as in the previous stage, 
one being dorsal and forming a transverse mark, the 
other two on the spiracular line, one elongate trans- 
versely, the second round, and each having the black 
central wart emitting a short hair as in the previous 
stage ; the head, legs, and remaining details being 
likewise similar. It rests in a straight attitude, with 
the head slightly bowed, and the first three anterior 
segments slightly arched, thereby drawing together 
the first two pairs of legs ; a silk cord from the mouth 
is attached to the stem while the larva is resting. The 
second moult took place on the 6th June. 

Before the third moult, when twenty-six days old, 
it is nine-sixteenths of an inch long ; the body is of 
uniform thickness and cylindrical ; the ground colour 
is whitish with a lilac-grey tinge, becoming yellowish 
shortly before moulting ; it is chequered with black 
markings that are arranged in longitudinal bands, 
which are medio-dorsal, subdorsal, superspiracular, 
and spiracular ; the spiracular row is formed princi- 
pally of conspicuous black blotches, commencing on 
the fourth and ending on the eleventh segments. 
Immediately below these markings is a series of bright 
light yellow markings running the entire length ; the 
dorsal markings, as in the previous stage, are also 
bright yellow. The ventral surface is similarly 
coloured and lined as on the dorsal region, but rather 
uniformly darker ; the head, legs, and claspers are 
grey, speckled and streaked with black. It generally 
rests in a straightened attitude. The third moult 
happened on the 11th June, and directly after 
moulting the ground colour is a light olive-yellow; 
all the markings are as in the previous stage, but 
brighter and more clearly defined. The head, legs, 
claspers, and anal segment are all of a clear pinkish - 
white, speckled with pale olive, the colouring of these 
parts remaining such but for a short time. The cast 
skin is not eaten by the larva of this species. 



14 NYSSIA LAPPONARIA. 

Before the fourth moult, thirty-two days old, it 
measures nine-tenths of an inch. As in the previous 
stage it is cylindrical, and of uniform thickness 
throughout; the groundcolour is pale primrose-yellow ; 
the longitudinal bands, which are outlined with fine 
black lines composed of numerous black specks and 
streaks, have the interspace of a leaden-drab colour, 
these bands being divided by primrose-yellow lines, 
thus forming longitudinal rows of alternating stripes ; 
the leaden-drab stripes are medio-dorsal, subdorsal, 
superspiracular, and spiracular; on the latter band 
are situated the spiracles, which are small and intensely 
black ; each is placed on a squarish dull deep black 
spot, forming a conspicuous row of spots ; each is 
bordered on the lateral and posterior sides with bright 
lemon-yellow, the yellow being again relieved laterally 
by a black streak ; on the posterior half of each seg- 
ment uniting the medio- and subdorsal bands is a short 
transverse lemon-yellow bar united to a black spot in 
the subdorsal band. The remaining details are in 
every way similar to the previous stage. It rests in a 
straight position upon the stems of birch, frequently 
straight along the stem, but sometimes only with its 
claspers grasping it, and the head a short distance 
away, but always with a silken thread from its mouth 
to the stem. The fourth and last moult took place on 
the 18th June. 

After the fourth moult, forty-two days old and 
fully grown, it measures an inch and a half in length. 
In every detail the preceding description agrees 
precisely with this stage, excepting that the yellow 
markings are now rather deeper, of a gamboge-yellow, 
and the ground colour of the dorsal surface is also 
rather deeper, and of course the size increased when 
fully grown. The ground colour varies in different 
specimens ; of the four larvas in my possession three 
having the yellow of different depths, and the fourth 
of a decided lilac-drab hue ; this, with the black 
markings, assumed quite a deep drab-brown, closely 



NYSSIA LAPPONARTA. 15 

resembling the colour of the birch stems. (Mr. 
Christy, referring to this colour variation in a letter 
recently receivedfrom him, says : " The ground colour 
varies considerably ; I have had them dark purplish- 
brown, so that they matched the birch twigs ; and I 
have had them almost putty-coloured.") The first larva 
buried for pupation on the 27th June, having remained 
in the larval state forty-two days. 

The pupa is six-tenths of an inch in length ; 
the head and thorax uniformly rounded in front ; 
round the middle of the wings it is rather contracted ; 
the fifth abdominal segment, including the apical 
portion of the wings, is swollen, the remainder of the 
abdomen being attenuated ; the posterior segment 
terminates in a slightly curved conical point, cleft at 
the end ; on the same segment at either side is also a 
short point. The entire surface is finely granulated, 
the head, thorax, and abdomen of a deep red-brown ; 
the wings, antennae, and leg cases are light sienna-red ; 
the eye cases are rather conspicuous and blackish. It 
has no cocoon, being simply buried an inch or two 
under the surface of the earth. 

Mr. Christy has kindly communicated the following : 
The ovipositor of the female moth is very long, 
quite a quarter of an inch. The eggs were laid 
through some green leno ; several folds of it had been 
tucked inside a chip box, and the eggs were laid be- 
tween the leno and the box. The female must be able 
to push her eggs into any chink or crevice quite out of 
harm's way. I have noticed that Amphidasis prodro- 
maria, A. betularia, and Nyssia hispidaria all like to 
deposit their eggs in the same way, that is, pushed a 
long way into some narrow chink, or between folds of 
muslin or leno. The eggs are laid in a rough untidy 
batch, sometimes somewhat overlapping one another, 
precisely after the manner of N. hispidaria, and to the 
naked eye they are in size and shape exactly like those 
of that species, but the colour is different. (F. W. 
Frohawk; Ent., September, 1895, XXVIII, 237.) 



16 CLEORA GLABRARIA. 



CLEORA GLABRARIA. 

Plate CXI, fig. 2. 

For some acquaintance with this species in the larval 
state I have been indebted to Mr. Bernard Lockyer, 
who, on the 1st of June, 1875, kindly sent me a larva, 
and on the 10th six others ; and to these were added 
four more on the 22nd, from Mr. Tate, of Lyndhurst ; 
all of these having been found by him feeding on 
TJsnea barbata growing on oaks in the New Forest. 

With the exception of the first individual, which 
died the morning after its arrival, these larvae were 
very active, and fed well on the extreme points of the 
lichen, eating them down rapidly for about an eighth 
of an inch, and sometimes eating off the nodes, and 
more rarely the cuticle from the larger branches. I 
was attentive to keep their food changed, and to 
moisten it with water thrice a day, as I soon found, if 
it became at all dry, they were unable to feed. 

One larva was contracting for its final change when 
it arrived, but had not strength to complete it ; on the 
16th of the month another had apparently ceased to 
feed, and would no longer remain on the lichen, but 
would mount to the gauze cover of its cage, persis- 
tently returning to it as often as removed. Various 
substances and soils were supplied to induce it to spin 
up, but in vain ; however, after the lapse of some days 
the mystery of its strange behaviour was cleared up 
by the appearance close by it of an ichneumon cocoon, 
or rather batch of four or five small cocoons spun on 
the gauze ; another, later on, was victimised in pre- 
cisely the same manner, while three others proved 
healthy and vigorous, retiring when full-fed into the 
wet tree-moss kept beneath the lichens, where I ob- 
served they had each hollowed out a small cavity, 
which was kept in an oval shape by help of a few 
threads, rather far apart, spun across the opening ; 



CLBOBA GLABRAttlA. 17 

but these could scarcely be called cocoons, for when 
looking about a week afterwards, on the 28th, for the 
pupse, two of them rolled out into my hand on taking 
up the moss, so little coherence had these slightly 
made puparia. 

Of the remaining four larvae, two pupated as above 
described, and two proved to be ichneumoned, one of 
these dying quite rigid, and the other lingering on, 
attached to the cocoon of its parasite, for some time 
after the pupae had disclosed the moths, which proved 
fine specimens, appearing from July 11th to 21st. 

The full-grown larva is nearly an inch in length, 
moderately slender, and of about uniform substance 
throughout ; the head, a trifle less than the second seg- 
ment, is a little flattened in front ; the segments of 
the body very well defined, the thoracic ones as usual, 
each of the others having a wrinkle across the back at 
the distance of one-third from the beginning, and 
three others near the end ; the anterior legs developed 
in gradation, the shortest pair in front, the second 
pair a little longer, and the third pair the longest ; the 
ventral and anal pairs well developed. 

In colour the head is pale greenish -white in front, 
light glaucous-green at the sides, reticulated with 
whitish ; near the crown, on each lobe, is a black 
streak undulating down to the antennal papillus, and 
bounding the whiter face from the greener side of the 
head; above the mouth is a triangular mark of 
blackish-brown atoms ; the ground colour of the body 
generally is a pale blue-green, that of the back has a 
more lively green tinge, though so pale as to be a 
greenish-white ; through the back can be distinguished 
the dorsal line by its bluer tinge, besides a small 
streak on either side of it anteriorly on each segment 
excepting the thoracic, which are broadly divided with 
it ; but the chief feature of the back is the row of black 
spots, viz. one rather oblong spot on the whitest 
portion on each thoracic segment, and on the others 
an oblong spot just at the beginning, and another 

vol. vit. 2 



18 OLEOMA GLABRARlA. 

thicker, of a blunt spear-head shape, about midway 
towards the end of each segment, and a small spot on 
the anal tip, — these are upon the dorsal line; along 
the boundary of the whitish colour of the back runs 
the row of subdorsal black dashes ; these are short 
and situated midway on the thoracic segments, and on 
the others are behind the first wrinkle extending 
nearly to the segmental division ; these vary in indi- 
viduals, being in some simple oblong dashes, while in 
others they appear open at one end, and in others 
again at both ends, suggestive of parallel streaks run 
together in the middle ; but in all, each of these 
dashes is bounded below by a greenish-white dash 
of the same extent, followed by a group of two or 
three small angular black spots or streaks, amongst 
which is the spiracle, which though appearing blackish 
has a faint flesh-coloured centre ; next runs the in- 
flated greenish-white subspiracular stripe marked 
with a black dash at the beginning of each segment, 
except on the anterior ones, which are marked in the 
middle with a squarish spot, and a small black spot is 
at the base of each anterior leg; the belly has a 
central faint greenish-white line with a black elongate 
mark on it at about the middle of each segment from 
the fifth to the ninth, both inclusive; a little more 
behind, on each side the central line, are a twin pair 
of black specks, and a couple of greenish-white spots 
on each side at the beginning of each of these seg- 
ments ; a very small black mark is at the inside base 
of each anterior leg ; the anterior legs are glistening ; 
the head and body are smooth without gloss; the 
tubercular dots are excessively small and dusky, each 
emitting a fine bristly hair. 

The pupa measures about half an inch in length, 
and in its greatest diameter, at the ends of the wings, 
one-eighth of an inch ; the eye-covers rather pro- 
minent, and the abdominal divisions deeply cut, the 
anal tip bearing a spike finely forked at its extremity; 
at the end of the first week the wings were olive- 



CLEORA GLABRARIA. 19 

green, the other parts brown, the anal spike blackish ; 
the whole surface glossy. (William Buckler, 30th 
July, 1875 ; E.M.M., September, 1875, XII, 84.) 

On August 12th, 1877, I received a batch of about 
24 eggs of this species from Mr. W. H. Ballett 
Fletcher, of Lyndhurst, laid by a captive female on 
the 9th and 10th, the parent having been taken from 
the trunk of a beech tree. These eggs were laid on 
a small branch of Usnea barbata, each egg separate, 
often at the very extremity, or near it, of the fine tips 
of the lichen, and adhering to them. 

The shape of the egg is roundish-oval, with a de- 
pression on either side, its surface covered with 
minute pits, the colour light greyish-greenish-white, 
and glistening. 

None of this batch of eggs hatched, but Mr. 
Ballett Fletcher obtained a few others from a much 
worn female, captured towards the end of August, 
and these eggs changed colour, two days after being 
laid, to a faintly perceptible pink tint. They hatched 
on the 10th September, and on the same day were 
forwarded to me with a bit of the lichen in a quill. 

On the 11th I received them, and found two or 
three had died during the journey. The others, 
very active little loopers, now two days old, were 
flesh-coloured, without any markings. They feed on 
the fine extreme tips of the branches of the lichen. 
By September 22nd they had moulted once, if not 
twice, and were still unicolorous but something more 
greenish- ochreous in their colour, and tinted rather 
deeper on the back than on the belly. On October 
8th I found they had died from the plant being 
attacked with mildew. (William Buckler, October, 
1877 ; Note Book III, 209.) 



20 BOARMtA ABIETAB1A. 



BOAEMIA ABIETAEIA. 

Plate CXII, fig. 1. 

I figured tlie larva of this species as long ago as 
1863, but none the less do I feel indebted to the Rev. 
Bernard Smith for kindly sending me eggs in July, 
1876, and thus giving me the opportunity to become 
more thoroughly acquainted with all its changes. 

The food which is generally given for the larva is 
fir; the examples I had in 1863 chose birch in pre- 
ference to fir ; Mr. Dorville, I remember, found a 
larva once on whortleberry, which he reared to ma- 
turity on the same plant; but from Mr. Machin I 
learnt that though he had formerly taken the larva 
very sparingly on oak, beech, pine, and spruce fir, it 
was not until many years afterwards that he dis- 
covered the larva to be quite common on yew (Taxus 
baccata), and from subsequent experience was con- 
vinced that this tree was the favourite and proper 
food. For enlightenment on this important point I 
am greatly indebted to Mrs. Hutchinson, who, in 
June, 1876, most kindly presented me with three fine 
full-grown larvas which she had reared on yew, and I 
used this food most successfully to rear the larvse 
from the eggs which Mr. Smith gave me. 

These eggs were laid on July 30th, by a female 
moth confined in a coarse muslin sleeve over a 
branch of yew ; however, in part she disregarded the 
branch, and extruded the eggs through the interstices 
to the outside of the muslin, where they adhered. 
The larvae hatched August 12th and 13th, and fed 
away well ; when, however, it became necessary to 
change their food, their complete assimilation to the 
colour of the under side of the leaves caused me 
from time to time to overlook one or two, and thus 
my stock, at first numbering twenty-seven, was re- 
duced to twelve by the end of the year. 

Their time of hibernation began about the middle 



BOARMTA ABIETARIA. 21 

of October, and lasted in a very partial way until the 
following spring, as they frequently moved a little, 
and nibbled their food during that period ; at the 
end of March, 1877, they fairly waked up, began to 
moult and thrive, and the most forward individual 
attained full growth by the 21st April, entering the 
earth on the 28th, and followed by the others at in- 
tervals up to the 9th May. The moths, ten in number, 
i. e. eight males and two females, and all finely 
developed, were bred from the 8th to 21st June. 

The egg in shape is oblong, elliptical, and has a 
depression on some part of the side, its surface finely 
ribbed lengthwise and pitted between the ribs ; the 
colour a light subdued green, glistening with a pearly 
lustre, changing on the seventh day to a paler tint of 
greenish-drab, and again on the fourteenth day to a 
deeper hue of olive-grey, when the embryo shows 
through the shell as a dark line, and on the next day 
it hatches. 

On escaping from the shell the larva is a slender 
little creature, with an ochreous- green head, a very 
pale greenish stripe down the back, a blackish-olive 
stripe on the side, a whitish stripe below, and the 
belly dark olive-green. When nine days old it is 
about a quarter of an inch in length, the colouring of 
the stripes rather browner, and within the pale stripe 
of the back appears an extremely fine dark green 
dorsal thread; at this time when disturbed it is an active 
little looper, but otherwise often hangs by a thread 
from a twig motionless ; when a fortnight old, the 
dark stripes begin to open into very fine parallel lines. 
At the age of five weeks it is a little more than three- 
eighths of an inch long, of uniform moderate substance, 
with anal legs well developed, ground colour light 
brown, with darker lines and paler edges to them, 
showing much of the characteristics of the mature 
state, viz. blackish subdorsal and lateral marks 
at the hinder parts of some of the segments, and 
thick blackish dashes below the spiracular region ; 



22 B0ARMIA ABIETARIA. 

the ventral surface dark brown with paler lines ; it is 
now rigid and stick-like, and as it has the habit of 
drawing the anterior legs up in a bunch close to the 
head, and as the anal legs are stout and thick, it 
has the appearance of being stoutest at each end. 

During the winter it seems to grow a little, and 
towards the approach of spring its length varies from 
half an inch to five-eighths, and the stoutness in pro- 
portion ; as it approaches full growth its ravages be- 
come apparent ; it often eats away all the leaves on one 
side of a yew stem before attacking those on the oppo- 
site side ; and when it has quite stripped the end of a 
twig it still keeps to the bare stick as a comfortable 
resting-place, returning to it, even after feeding at 
some distance, by help of the strong silk thread 
attached to the twig from its spinneret, just as in its 
more juvenile days ; at this more mature age, however, 
the thread is not easily broken, and always drawn 
forth in its leisurely progress, both on leaving and 
regaining its bare stem, to stretch itself along it at 
full length, and embrace it with its legs as it settles 
itself for a day's sleep ; it seems to be only at night 
that it feeds or moves unless disturbed, for when I 
had three or four examples asleep on twigs openly 
before me for many hours, no movement occurred 
beyond the mere expulsion of a pellet of frass at inter- 
vals ; probably, at large, on a yew tree, it would be 
completely hidden from view. 

The full-grown larva measures an inch and a half in 
length, and about three-sixteenths, or nearly, in dia- 
meter throughout, though the head is a little less than 
the second segment, its lobes rounded and well defined 
on the crown ; the segmental divisions are indicated by 
a fold of the skin ; beyond the thoracic segments each 
has two faint wrinkles anteriorly across the back, and 
three or four towards the end, rather deeper on the 
sides, where the skin is much puffed and puckered, 
especially along the spiracular region ; the muscles of 
the ventral and anal legs largely developed ; the tuber- 



BOARMIA ABIETARIA. 23 

cular warts rather prominent, especially the hinder 
dorsal pairs, which are larger than the front pairs, 
and as well as those along the sides are on little tumid 
eminences. Of the ground colour there are two varie- 
ties : one is light ochreous-brown, having conspicuously 
paler cream-coloured patches on the back of several 
segments ; the other variety is dark greyish-brown 
with paler patches, sometimes of light cinnamon- 
brown, often palest on the fifth, ninth, and tenth 
segments ; the head is much freckled with reddish- 
brown, and has a brown conspicuous spot on the front 
of each lobe, and another just above each papillus ; the 
dorsal line on the thoracic segments is but just indi- 
cated by very short double black marks at their divi- 
sions, but it is more complex on the other segments, 
being composed of a fine central pale thread within 
two lines or series of brown freckles, which widen 
gradually as they approach between the second pairs 
of tubercles, and then as gradually contract towards 
the end of each segment ; these are followed in a 
parallel direction on either side of the back by a pale 
line edged outside with a line of brown freckles, some 
lighter, some darker, and after an interval of ground 
colour by the pale subdorsal stout line, edged on both 
sides with a thin line of brown freckles ; the front 
pairs of warts are black on the fifth, sixth, seventh, 
eighth, and ninth segments ; and the hind pairs, 
though pale in part, are involved in a strong black 
mark which, flowing from them, darkens the parts 
of both adjacent lines to the segmental division ; 
sometimes, but not often, these black markings are 
present on the four hinder segments, otherwise the 
warts only bear a black dot ; along the side occurs a 
faint pale wavy line, edged below with black, but this 
is interrupted for a space just behind each lateral 
black wart, and again continued to the segmental 
division ; the spiracles are of the ground colour, 
roundish-ovate in form, and strongly outlined with 
black, and in front of each is a short line of a few 



24 B0ARMIA ABIETARIA. 

black freckles ; lines occur on the belly, but are very 
faint. Each tubercular wart emits a fine short bristly 
hair, and these hairs are rather numerous on the head, 
the thirteenth segment, and anal legs. 

When full-fed, and beginning to contract for its 
change, the colouring of the larva is turned to a 
dingy smoky-green. 

Apparently it makes no appreciable cocoon, and a 
few days before the moth is disclosed the pupa makes 
its way upwards towards the surface of the earth. 

The pupa is about three-quarters of an inch in 
length, stoutest across the ends of the wing-covers, 
where its diameter is a quarter of an inch, and from 
whence it tapers gradually to the end of the abdomen, 
which is furnished with a tapering projection, sepa- 
rating near the end into two fine short points ; 
the surface of the thorax and wing-covers smooth, 
the abdominal rings very finely punctate, their 
divisions smooth, and of a dull violet-brown colour ; 
all the other colouring dark brown and glossy. 
(William Buckler, February 11th, 1878; E.M.M., 
March, 1878, XIV, 219.) 

BOARMIA CINCTARIA. 

Plate OXII, fig. 2. 

It gives me great pleasure to record my thanks to 
Mr. J. G. Ross for kindly supplying me with eggs of 
this species on May 26th, 1876, which were laid to- 
gether in a cluster. 

In shape the egg is elongate, elliptical, bluntly 
rounded at one end, and more gradually at the other, 
near which occurs a depression ; the surface ribbed 
longitudinally and pitted ; in colour light olive-drab, 
iridescent with the play of light in the numerous pits, 
and having a slight degree of transparency, showing, 
when held against the light, the darker embryo 
within ; the colouring changes the day before hatching 
to pinkish-grey. 



B0ARM1A CINCTARIA. 25 

The larvae hatched on May 28th, and at first they 
were dark olive-brown, with pale olive-green head, a 
whitish stripe along the back, another along the side ; 
several kinds of food were grven them, but they un- 
mistakably preferred birch, on which, after wandering 
over other leaves, most of them settled down, and 
began to eat minute patches of cuticle from the 
under side, causing transparent specks to appear on 
the upper surface of the leaves. By the 3rd of June 
some had escaped, probably during my previous in- 
spection, and one had died on an oak-leaf; the 
remaining twelve had moulted, and were pale greenish- 
yellow on the back, with a very broad darker greenish 
stripe on each side. After another moult, by the 9th, 
they were a quarter of an inch long, of olive-green 
colour, with several fine, equidistant, double, longi- 
tudinal, darker lines ; at this time they were very 
lively active loopers, and had been apparently feeding 
a little on oak as well as birch, but preferring the 
latter. By the 12th they were five-sixteenths of an 
inch long, and much paler green in colour, with lines 
only just visible, and by the 15th had again moulted 
and become darker, and on the 18th were nine- 
sixteenths of an inch long, having distinct dark lines 
with the addition of pale subdorsal stripes ; by the 
23rd the most forward individuals had increased 
their length to three-quarters of an inch, and were 
stouter in proportion, their lines still more distinct, 
the subdorsal white stripe relieved now by a specially 
dark one beneath. 

By the 1st of July they had moulted for the last 
time, and in the course of three or four more days 
attained their utmost dimensions, becoming full-fed 
and returning to earth from July 6th to 10th. 

The first moth came forth on April 25th, 1877, 
simultaneously with about a dozen of CEcopIbora 
pseudospretella, both species continuing to appear at 
intervals, and the last specimen of B. cinctaria on 
May 12th, in all seven males and three females, a 



26 BOARMIA CINCTARTA. 

wonderful result, as only two of the pupge had been 
found and devoured by such a number of those in- 
satiable pests, which appeared to have fed chiefly on 
the remains of the birch leaves amongst which they 
had spun themselves up. The B. cinctaria seemed 
not to have made any appreciable cocoons, as the 
pupa skins were found at the bottom of the pot, at a 
depth of four inches, apparently loose in the coarse 
friable soil. 

The full-grown larva is an inch and a half in 
length, moderately slender, nearly of uniform bulk 
when viewed from above, but when viewed sidewavs 

• ■ a/ 

is seen to taper very slightly from the tenth segment, 
both toward the head and also behind ; the head is 
rather wider near the mouth than at its junction with 
the second segment ; the skin is soft and smooth, its 
general ground colour a light and tender green, the 
head the lightest, and rather pinkish at the mouth, 
the ocelli black ; on the second segment the lines to be 
mentioned are all very faint; the whole of the back 
appears much lighter than the sides and belly, from 
the number and closeness of pale longitudinal lines, 
which are relieved by fine thread-like edges only of 
the green ground ; the dorsal line is rather bluish- 
green, darkest near each segmental division, and 
having an exceedingly fine, ragged, greenish-white 
central thread; close on either side of it comes a ragged- 
edged, yellowish-white or yellowish line, followed 
closely by another, less light or fainter, and again by 
a wider, ragged-edged whitish subdorsal line ; these 
are each defined by a fine thread of green edging, and 
are relieved below by a wide line of rather darker 
bluish-green, having a very fine, ragged, paler thread 
running through it; below, again follows a faint 
greenish-white thread, edged with a darker thread of 
bluish-green, followed by a broad space of the light 
green ground, only faintly marked with the slightest 
possible trace of a pair of paler threads along the 
spiracles, which are small, roundish, oval and flesh- 



BOARMIA CINCTARIA. 27 

coloured, delicately outlined with black, the skin 
below them a little puckered, showing yellowish in 
some places ; the belly is of a more bluish-green, 
having a ventral paler stripe, faintly edged with 
darker green than the ground, and on either side are 
two faintly paler ragged lines, also edged with darker 
green ; the lines of the back all terminate in front of 
the anal flap, which is light yellowish-green, with a 
sprinkling of most minute black freckles ; freckles 
also occur on the hinder parts of the anal legs ; a 
fine short bristly black hair proceeds from each of 
the usual tubercular situations, but can only be seen 
with a strong lens. 

The pupa skin is nine-sixteenths of an inch in 
length, of ordinary shape, thickest at the ends of the 
wing-cases, plump in character, tapering rather sud- 
denly to the anal tip, which has a small projection 
and a spike from it divided in two sharp points ; the 
abdominal divisions are smooth; the rest of the surface 
is finely punctate ; the colour dark mahogany-brown, 
and rather shining ; on the abdomen a few extremely 
fine short hairs pointing backwards. (William Buck- 
ler, August 9th, 1877; E.M.M., September, 1877, 
XIV, 83.) 



BOARMIA ROBORARIA. 

Plate CXII, fig. 3. 

I am indebted to the kindness of my friend Mr. J. 
P. Barrett, of Peckham, for the opportunity of 
watching this interesting species in all its stages. 
The eggs, which I received on the 11th of July, 1871, 
seemed to be deposited in clusters, were oblong-oval 
in shape, and in colour reddish-brown. 

On July 14th they hatched, and the young larvse 
were at once supplied with fresh oak-leaves, on which 
they fed so long as leaves were obtainable ; this food 
failing in the autumn, tender oak-twigs were sub- 



28 BOABMIA EOBORARIA. 

stituted ; and to these the ]arva3 (then having attained 
a length of three-quarters of an inch) attached them- 
selves by silken threads spun over the twigs, the 
threads being then grasped by the claspers ; in some 
instances the threads were also even spun over the 
hinder segments of the larvas. In this position they 
spent the w r inter in a semi-torpid state, but in mild 
weather fed with evident relish on the tender bark, 
sometimes eating nearly through the twigs. In early 
spring many of them died off; and the only one which 
reached maturity was full-grown early in June, when 
I described it as follows : 

Length about two inches, and of average propor- 
tionate bulk. Head flat, and deeply notched on the 
crown, narrower than the second segment, into 
which, when the larva is at rest, it is partially with- 
drawn. Body cylindrical, of tolerably uniform width, 
but with several prominences, as follows : the fifth, 
segment is swollen from the sides into two conspicuous 
dorsal humps, divided by a notch on the centre of the 
dorsal surface ; on the sixth segment is a transverse 
ventral ridge ; and on the twelfth are two very small 
dorsal humps ; there are also two short anal points. 
Skin tough and rather shining, puckered on the anterior 
and posterior segments, but smooth on the middle of 
the dorsal surface. The ground colour is marbled 
with almost every shade of pale brown, tinged in 
several places with dull dark green, and blotched along 
the sides with pale bluish-grey. Head chocolate- 
brown, the face mixed with grey. Medio-dorsal stripe 
interrupted and indistinct, a little darker than the 
ground colour ; subdorsal and spiracular stripes 
scarcely perceptible. Spiracles distinct, pinkish- 
brown, encircled with chocolate. The ground colour 
of the ventral surface is variegated with the 
same shades of brown as the dorsal surface, but 
has in addition several purplish marks ; on each 
side of the ridge on the sixth segment is a pale 
yellow mark ; there is also the rather broad, 



BOAEMJA ROBORAKIA. 29 

interrupted, dull yellow central stripe, characteristic 
of the genus. Legs pointed and curved inwards, dull 
chocolate-brown, the first joint paler than the others. 

When at rest the larva greatly resembles a twig, 
the notched head being exactly similar to two oak-buds. 

The single larva went down on June 10th, and the 
imago, a female, appeared on the 5th of July, 1872. 
(George T. Porritt, December 11th, 1872; Ent., 
January, 1873, VI, 281.) 

I am indebted to Mr. W. H. Harwood for repeated 
help in rearing this species, enabling me at length to 
offer an account of all its stages. With larvae sent in 
1868 I failed entirely, but succeeded much better with 
eggs in 1871 ; and this past spring (of 1874) I have 
again been furnished with a larva after hibernation, 
in order to make sure of one or two points. 

The eggs reached me on the 5th of July ; the larvae 
were hatched on the 15th, and I soon put them out- 
doors on a young oak ; when about three-quarters of 
an inch in length they hibernate, taking up a position 
on a twig, and remaining motionless as if growing 
from it; about the end of January, 1872, I found them 
gnawing the back of the twigs, and this they did at 
intervals till they had barked all the twigs of their 
oak-plant, and checked the development of the buds ; 
so that on looking at them about the end of March I 
found some dead from starvation, and the survivors 
looking shrunken ; I now put them on a fresh plant, 
the leaves of which had been forced, and on these, as 
well as on the tender green stems of the new shoots, 
they fed well, becoming full-grown towards the end of 
April or beginning of May ; the moths appeared be- 
tween June 5th and 12th. 

The egg, as is the case in this genus, is small in 
proportion to the moth, of flattened oblong figure, 
one end blunter than the other ; the shell down the 
sides reticulated in regular rows of four-sided meshes, 
with knots or little knobs at the angles, and generally 
one or two extra on one of the four sides, as though 



30 BOARMIA ROBOIIARIA. 

the shape were meant to be a pentagon or hexagon ; at 
the ends the meshes are pentagonal or hexagonal, 
with the knots in their proper places ; the colour of 
the eggs when received was dull greenish, one end 
becoming deep pink, the little knobs being white ; at 
last the whole egg became dark brownish. 

The newly hatched larva is without humps, in 
colour pale green, with broad dark-brown lateral stripe, 
and head pale reddish-brown. The first moult takes 
place in about a week, and the young larva comes out 
with indications of a hump on the sixth segment ; the 
colour pale ochreous on the back, lateral stripe pale 
brown, spiracular stripe pale ochreous, belly darker. 

After this the larva gets darker in colour, and 
attains a length of about three quarters of an inch 
before hibernation ; the head is now notched, and 
large for the size of the body, and the ventral and 
anal pairs of legs are also large ; the sixth segment is 
puffed, and bears two transverse humps on the back ; 
the seventh with a pair of ventral warts ; the twelfth 
with a transverse dorsal ridge bearing a pair of warts. 
The colour is dull purplish on the back, the belly 
paler and more brownish, the folds, humps, and 
ventral and anal legs all dusky grey; the head 
ochreous, freckled with brownish ; at the folds a 
slight dorsal pattern, viz. a blackish spot with an 
ochreous spot on either side. 

After hibernation it moults once, and then feeds up. 

The full-grown larva is about an inch and three- 
quarters in length ; from above it appears of about 
uniform bulk throughout, except at the sixth segment, 
but sideways it appears stoutest at the ninth and 
tenth segments ; the head is narrower than the 
second segment, flattened in front, notched on the 
crown, the lobes rising in conical prominences ; the 
sixth segment very much swollen on the back and 
sides, and bearing a pair of puckered subdorsal humps ; 
the swelling begins just below the spiracle, which is 
thus lifted considerably above the level of the spiracles 



BOARMIA KOBOKARIA. 31 

of the other segments ; the seventh bears on its belly 
a pair of transverse puckered humps, in some speci- 
mens looking more like two sets of warts — three in 
each ; the twelfth has a slight transverse dorsal ridge 
bearing a pair of warts ; in some specimens, also the 
fourth bears a pair of three-lobed, transverse, sub- 
dorsal humps ; the front pairs of legs on the third 
and fourth segments are well developed, as well as the 
ventral and anal pairs ; the anal flap triangular, some- 
what rounded at the tip, the thirteenth (under the 
flap) ending in two bluntish points, with a shorter 
sharper one between them ; the skin glossy, but 
wrinkled on the hinder part of each segment. 

The ground colour is generally purplish-brown, 
sometimes more cinnamon-brown, the folds and humps 
dark brownish-grey ; there is not much pattern, and 
different individuals vary in the amount of patches of 
paler colouring, some having broad patches of cream 
colour in the spiracular region of the fifth and tenth 
segments ; the sixth sometimes tinged with rust- 
colour ; the dorsal line appears as a palish dash on the 
front of each segment, and a spot just at the end; 
similar pale spots are sometimes seen where the sub- 
dorsal line should be on the sixth and ninth segments ; 
the head brownish; the spiracles dirty white, outlined 
with black. 

The whole appearance of the larva, both in out- 
line and colour, is extremely suggestive of an oak 
twig, and it preserves the resemblance under one or 
two changes of attitude ; sometimes standing stiffly 
out, with the body in a straight line up to the eighth 
segment, then the seventh bent slightly upwards from 
this, and then from the sixth to the head again in one 
line ; the head and thoracic segments and legs more or 
less " bunched" together; sometimes standing off at 
a wider angle from a twig, and then with the whole 
front of the body from the sixth to the head inclined 
— in a stiff line — towards the twig again ; in this 
position it looks like what had been a forked twig, 



32 BOARMIA ROBORARIA. 

with one of the forks broken oh ; in walking, its 
humps lose much of their prominence, and then it 
looks much like other stout geometers. 

The pupa is enclosed in a slight cocoon, placed just 
on the surface of the soil, and formed by drawing 
together moss, etc. ; it is about three-quarters of an 
inch long, cylindrical, the thorax and upper part of the 
abdomen stoutish, the lower part tapering off rapidly ; 
the wing-cases granulated and dull, the abdomen 
glossy; the whole pupa skin sparsely set with fine 
bristles; the anal spike triangular, flattened, and ending 
in a long fine spine, barely bifurcated at the tip ; 
colour a very dark brown, with the abdominal rings 
reddish. (John Hellins, May 30th, 1874; E.M.M., 
July, 1874, XI, 40.) 



BOAKMIA CONSOliTAIUA. 

Plate CXII, fig. 4. 

Another geometer which came commonly to sugar, 
but not so abundantly as did Tejphrosia extersaria, 
during the expedition of Mr. W. H. Tugwell and 
myself to Abbott's Wood, Sussex, in June, 1892 (see 
Ent. Mo. Mag., March, 1895, p. 65), was Boarmia 
consortaria. 

Eggs deposited by some of the specimens taken 
were bright green, and small for so large a moth. 

The young larvae hatched on June 24th, and fed 
well on oak, birch, and sallow, some of them being 
almost full grown by August 3rd, when I described 
them as follows : 

Length about an inch and three quarters, and 
slender in proportion ; head slightly narrower than 
the second segment, notched, but not deeply so, on 
the crown, the lobes rounded at the sides, but flattened 
in front, giving the face a flat appearance. Body 
cylindrical, of fairly uniform width, but swollen a little 
towards both extremities. On the sixth segment are 



B0ARMIA CONSOKTARIA. 33 

two prominent humps; two other, but much smaller, 
humps on the twelfth segment, and still two more 
small ones, pointing horizontally, at the extreme tip 
of the thirteenth segment ; skin smooth, but with a 
slightly wrinkled appearance. 

The colour varies extremely in different specimens, 
but the variations are mostly among the brown forms. 

Var. 1 has the ground colour a pale glaucous-green, 
and through it the alimentary canal can be distinctly 
seen, and forms a darker green dorsal line; head yellow, 
but almost covered with pale brown marbling ; the man- 
dibles and a few small dots at the bottom of the side of 
each lobe, very dark brown; the humps on the sixth seg- 
ment chocolate-brown, the smaller ones on the twelfth 
segment paler brown ; spiracles large and distinct, 
white, encircled with very dark brown. Ventral area 
of the same colour as the dorsal surface, but having a 
pale pinkish stripe extending longitudinally through 
its centre; the legs marbled with pale brown like 
the head, anal segment and prolegs yellowish-brown, 
the extreme bases of the latter dark chocolate-brown. 
Judging from mylarvaa reared from several batches of 
eggs, this is the least common form. 

Var. 2 has the ground colour brown, yellowish, or 
greyish, strongly marked or marbled with dark brown 
or red-brown ; the top of the head in these forms 
having a pale yellow streak, edged above with very 
dark brown or black, and the head generally being 
much darker than in Var. 1 ; the warty humps on 
the sixth and twelfth segments are dark chocolate- 
brown, the tips in some examples being red ; spiracles 
pale, encircled with very dark brown or black. The 
ventral surface partakes of the colouring and marbling 
of the dorsal area, but the broad central stripe is much 
more conspicuous than in Var. 1 ; in some cases it is 
ochreous-brown, with smoky edging throughout its 
length ; in others, generally the darkest larva?, the 
ochreous is interrupted at intervals with patches of 
darker colouring. The legs and prolegs vary so 

vol. vil. 3 



34 BOARMLA OONSORTARIA. 

much in the amount and position of the brown on 
them, that to describe any of them in detail would 
probably be misleading, so far as concerns the deter- 
mination of casually- captured larvae. 

Feeds on oak and birch, and in captivity also well 
on sallow. 

By August 23rd nearly all the larvas had disap- 
peared below the surface of the ground, and the 
moths, a very line series, emerged from May 16th to 
nearly the end of July following. (George T. Porritt, 
September 12th, 1895 ; E.M.Mr, October,1895, XXXI, 
226.) 

Tephrosia consonaria. 
Plate OXIII, fig. 1 . 

On Mav 15th, 1871, I received from Mr. H. W. 
Marsden, of Gloucester, a few eggs of this species ; 
they were oval, and in colour dull reddish-purple. In 
a fortnight, the young yellowish-green larva? emerged, 
and took readily to oak and birch. By June 23rd a 
length of about five-eighths of an inch had been 
attained, and the general colour was dark brown, 
with a broad yellow double medio-dorsal stripe; the 
head paler brown than the ground. 

On July 25th they were full-fed, and may be 
described as follows : 

Length nearly one and a half inches, and very 
slender in proportion ; head a little wider than the 
second segment, globular, rather flattened on the face, 
and very slightly notched on the crown. Body nearly 
cylindrical, but slightly flattened on the dorsal, and 
still more so on the ventral surface. The segments 
overlap each other, and thus render the divisions 
conspicuous. The usual dots are slightly raised, and 
on the twelfth segment appear as two slight humps; 
the skin has a wrinkled appearance. 

The ground colour varies in different specimens from 
yellowish-green to yellowish-brown ; the head is pale, 



TKPHROSIA CONSONAIUA. 35 

thickly mottled with light or dark brown, according to 
the shade of the ground of the body. A dark green 
pulsating vessel, bordered on each side with yellowish- 
green, forms the medio-dorsal stripe ; there are no 
perceptible subdorsal or spiracular lines. The spiracles 
are white, encircled with black; the slight humps on 
the twelfth segment black. The ventral surface is 
yellow, tinged with green; the legs and prolegs are 
brownish. (George T. Porritt, May 16th, 1872; 
E.M.M., June, 1872, IX, 17.) 



Tmphrosia crepuscularta. 
Plate CXIII, fig. 2. 

On the 2nd of June, 1871, I received from my 
friend Mr. J. P. Barrett, of Peckham, several larvae of 
this species, which, being full-grown, I described as 
follows : 

Moderately stont, length about an inch and a quarter. 
Head flattened and notched on the crown, the same 
width as the second, but very much narrower than the 
third segment, which is swollen laterally, forming a 
prominent hump on each side ; the remaining segments 
are uniform, and of about equal width until the 
twelfth is reached, where there is a slight lateral dorsal 
ridge. Skin rather wrinkled, puckered along the 
sides. The third pair of legs appear longer than the 
others, caused by the fourth segment being swollen 
ventrally. 

Ground colour stone-grey ; in some specimens very 
distinctly variegated with reddish-ochreous, whilst in 
others a dull dirty black prevails. 

In the grey variety, which I will call Var. 1, the 
head is stone-grey, marbled with different shades of 
brown ; the medio-dorsal stripe is dull dirty green, 
interrupted on several of the segments; to the fifth 
segment the subdorsal lines are dark sienna-brown, 
with a fine rust-coloured centre ; at this segment they 



36 TEPHROSIA CREPUSCULARIA. 

are interrupted, but continued without the rust-coloured 
centre, at the middle of the sixth, until the eleventh, 
when they turn downwards towards the front prolegs, 
forming an angle enclosing a pale yellow mark ; they 
are seen again as a short, oblique, dark sienna-brown 
streak on each side the ridge on the twelfth segment ; 
on the sixth segment the subdorsal lines also pass 
obliquely upward, meeting in the centre, and forming a 
conspicuous V-shaped mark, the apex being pointed 
anteriorly ; there are no perceptible spiracular lines, 
that region being variegated with smoke colour. The 
general colour of the belly is dull yellow, thickly 
clouded with smoke-colour, the space between the two 
pairs of prolegs being grey. The spiracles are small, 
and brown with pale centres. 

Var. 2, the form variegated with reddish-ochreous, 
has the head reddish-brown, marbled with darker 
brown, and a black V-shaped mark, the apex of which 
is pointed towards, and close to the notch in the 
crown; the medio-dorsal line the same as in Var. 1, 
as are also the subdorsal lines, but the pale mark on 
each side of the eleventh segment, above, and slightly 
in advance of, the anterior pair of prolegs is lemon- 
yellow, much brighter than in Var. 1. The ventral 
surface as in Var. 1, but having the characteristic 
reddish-ochreous variegations. 

Var. 3, the smoke-coloured variety, is the darkestform 
I have seen. The head is grey, marbled with smoke- 
colour, and this smoke-colour also prevails on the 
dorsal surface of the body. Singularly, the pale mark 
above the anterior pair of prolegs is paler than in 
either of the other varieties, being nearly white. 

The larvae seem partial to oak, and when at rest, 
grasp the stem with the claspers, stretching out at full 
length, with the anterior part raised. The two anterior 
pairs of legs are tucked in, whilst the ventral humps 
render the third pair very prominent. All the legs 
are slightly bent inwards. 

At the time these larvae were changing to pupae, I 



TEPHROSIA CKEPUSCULARTA. 37 

was taking the perfect insect of the closely allied 
T. biundularia at large. (George T. Porritt, January 
8th, 1872; E.M.M., February, 1872, VIII, 208.) 



Tephrosia lartcarja (bitjndulaeia). 
Plate CXIII, fig. 3. 

In May, 1877, Mr. E. Birchall sent me eggs of 
Tephrosia bmndularia, which I had much interest in 
examining under the microscope. The egg is oblong, 
cylindrical, and full, more conical at one end than tho 
other; the shell of dull appearance without any gloss, 
but also without any reticulation or granulation, except 
just in the centre of the fuller end, where there is 9 
small circular patch of oval reticulation ; the colour 
of the egg is a light bright green. 

Of course this description shows the egg to be per- 
fectly of the geometer type, but in the point of being 
devoid of ornament, except in the centre of one end, 
it is like the egg of Gliarxas graminis ; the shell of 
this egg (which is of the usual Noctttaiorm), is evenly 
granulated all over, in a very fine pattern, but has in 
the centre of the top a small star or rosette as its 
ornament. (John Hellins, January 9th, 1878 ; E.M.M., 
March, 1878, XIV, 236.) 

Several correspondents have at different times sent 
me eggs of Tejrfirosia biundularia, but I had never had 
an opportunity of describing the adult larva until last 
year (1872), when I was enabled to do so from two 
specimens received from Mr, J. R. Wellman, of 
London, on the 12th of June. 

The eggs are deposited early in May, are slightly 
oval, and in colour bright green. 

The larvas feed on oak, and become full grown about 
the middle of June. 

The larva is in length about an inch and a quarter, 
and of average bulk in proportion. Head retractile, 
flattened, about the same width as the second, but 



38 TEPHR0S1A LA1UCARIA (biUiNDULARIa). 

narrower than the third segment, which segment is 
swollen on each side into a lateral hump ; the remaining 
segments are of about equal width until the twelfth 
is reached, on which there is a slight dorsal ridge; the 
segmental divisions tolerably distinct. The skin along 
the sides rather puckered ; the fourth segment is 
swollen ventrally, which makes the third pair of legs 
appear longer than the rest. The ground colour is 
dull reddish-brown; from the tenth to the thirteenth 
segments reddish-ochreous, and the sixth, seventh, 
and eighth segments dull dirty black. Head pale 
ochreous-brown, spotted and marked with dark brown; 
medio-dorsal line dull dark green ; subdorsal stripes 
dark brown, with indistinct paler central line ; 
there are no perceptible spiracular lines. Just above 
and a little in front of the first pair of claspers is an 
ochreous-yellow mark, and on the seventh and eighth 
segments, just below the dorsal line, is a pale grey 
lateral mark. Spiracles small, greyish-brown, encircled 
with dark brown. The ventral surface is dark purplish- 
brown, with ochreous-yellow medio-ventral stripe. 

These two larvae were much darker and redder than a 
brood I had reared to moderate size the year previous, 
which were much more nearly like the pale greyish 
variety of the larva of T. crepuscularia. Probably 
the larvae of T. biundularia vary as much as do those 
of that species. (George T. Porritt, April 8th, 1873; 
Ent., May, 1873, VI, 385.) 

TEFHROSIA EXTERSA1UA. 

Plate CXIII, fig. 4. 

When on a collecting expedition to Abbott's Wood, 
Sussex, with Mr. W. H. Tug well, at the beginning of 
Jane, 1892, we found Tep/trosia extersaria a very 
abundant visitor to the sugared trees. From some of 
the specimens boxed eggs were obtained, but it was 
not until some time after they were hatched that I 
discovered there was no English description of the 



TEPHROSIA EXTERSARIA. 39 

larva, hence only meagre notes had been made on the 
earliest stages. Fortunately the eggs, which were 
dull dark green, did not all hatch together, so that, 
when I did find out the necessity of studying them 
closely, I was able to take notes on the larvae in various 
stages. By this time, August 5th, they varied from 
half an inch to an inch or a little over in length. 

Up to nearly three-quarters of an inch the colouring 
and marking are pretty much the same, and may be 
described as follows : 

Body slender, cylindrical, and of almost uniform 
width throughout ; head rounded, but rather flat in 
front, fully as wide as the second segment ; skin smooth 
and glossy, and the segmental divisions clearly defined. 
Ground colour bright pale green ; the head yellowish- 
green in front, brown at the sides ; the very fine 
medio-dorsal line, and the broad subdorsal stripes 
darker green ; spiracles black. Yentral area and pro- 
legs bright green, the front pair of prolegs tipped 
with brown ; anterior legs grey, ringed at intervals 
with brown. 

In the next stage, that is, when about three-quarters 
of an inch has been attained, two small raised tubercles 
have appeared on the ninth segment ; the ground 
colour has become a darker green, and the fine medio- 
dorsal line still darker green ; the subdorsal stripes 
have become more or less purple, some specimens 
having very little of this colour, while in others it is the 
predominating colour of the stripes ; the two tubercles 
on the ninth segment are purple in both pale and dark 
forms ; the segmental divisions are yellow or pink in 
different specimens ; the head is still yellowish-green, 
but has lost a good deal of the brown at the sides. 

At the next moult an inch has been attained ; the 
skin has now quite lost its glossy character, and has 
become rather rough in appearance ; the two small 
tubercles on the ninth segment have swollen into a 
distinct transverse ridge ; the segments also slightly 
overlap each other. Ground colour bright green ; the 



40 TEPHROSIA EXTERSARIA. 

middle of the dorsal .area forms a broad yellowish 
stripe, enclosing the fine, dark green medio-dorsal line; 
the purplish subdorsal stripes have become broken 
into large, irregular, dark sienna-brown patches, which 
on the dark green ground colour are very conspicuous ; 
these dark patches are most dense on the front and 
posterior segments ; the ridge on the ninth segment 
is also of this dark colour; head now almost uniformly 
green ; spiracles dark sienna-brown, with pale centres. 
Ventral surface of the same green as the dorsal area, 
but numerously spotted with dark sienna-brown ; pro- 
legs also green, with the outside of the front pair 
purple; anterior legs green, marked with brown. 

By August 15th, many of the larvse were becoming 
full-fed, though some of them were still not half-grown. 

The adult larva is about an inch and a half long, 
and of fair bulk, inclining, however, more to slender- 
ness than obesity. Head rounded at the sides, rather 
flattened in front, a little narrower than the second, 
and still narrower than the third and fourth segments, 
which, with the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth, are rather 
swollen ; the remaining segments are of nearly uniform 
width, allowance being made for tie overlapping at 
the divisions ; there is a raised transverse hump on 
the ninth segment, and a smaller transverse ridge on 
the sixth segment. 

There are two very distinct types of colouring : 

In Yar. 1, which is the more numerous, the ground 
is j)ale pea-green, the head and the dorsal area at the 
segmental divisions strongly tinged with yellow; the 
lower part of each lobe spotted with black ; the 
alimentary canal shows through as a very narrow and 
interrupted dorsal line; a purplish-brown patch, 
marbled with white (this white forming two distinct 
spots on each of the middle segments), on the posterior 
half of each segment, except the twelfth and thirteenth, 
and extending from the subdorsal to the spiracular 
regions, take the place of the subdorsal and spiracular 
stripes ; the hump on the ninth segment is dark 



TEPHROSIA EXTERSARIA. 41 

chocolate-brown at each side, but paler purplish-brown 
in the middle, which gives the appearance of there 
being two small dark humps ; the smaller ridge on the 
sixth segment dark chocolate-brown; spiracles distinct, 
each being placed on a round lunule of a paler shade 
of the ground colour ; they are pink, encircled with a 
clear black ring. 

Ventral area dingy green, in some specimens with a 
central longitudinal row of white spots ; in others these 
spots are absent ; the segmental divisions, and the out- 
side of the front pair of posterior legs purplish-brown ; 
anterior legs also reticulated with purplish-brown. 

In Var. 2 the ground colour is purplish-brown, 
except the head and second segment, which still partly 
retain the screen character of the more numerous 
form ; head tinged with brown, and the black spots at 
the base of the sides of each lobe distinct ; in some 
specimens two interrupted yellowish lines extend 
through the dorsal area; in other specimens these 
lines are almost obliterated ; the purplish-brown marks 
of Var. 1 are in this form replaced by dark chocolate- 
brown, but the two white, nearly triangular spots on 
the posterior edges of the segments (in some speci- 
mens from the second to the eleventh) show out 
distinctly ; both the lateral ridges are dark chocolate- 
brown ; each spiracle is placed in a pale lunular patch, 
pinkish, ringed with intense glossy black. 

Ventral surface dull purplish or chocolate-brown (in 
some specimens tinged with dingy green), except on 
the frontal segments, where it is green, and an inter- 
rupted stripe of clear white spots extends through its 
centre; segmental divisions purple; outer part of the 
front pair of posterior legs purplish-brown, the hind 
pair green ; anterior legs reticulated with purplish- 
brown. 

My larva3 fed on birch, oak, sallow, and osier, 
but seemed to prefer sallow and osier. The last speci- 
men went down on September 4th, and on the 19th I 
described one of the pupae as follows : 



42 TEPHROSIA EXTERSARIA. 

Pupa of ordinary shape, a little less than half an 
inch in length, stout, slightly rough, but glossy ; the 
head-, eye-, leg-, and wing-cases dull olive-green ; 
abdominal segments reddish brown, with darker spots 
and segmental divisions. 

The moths emerged from May 20th to 28th in the 
spring following. (George T. Porritt, January 5th, 
1895; E.M.M., March, 1895, XXXI, 65.) 



Tephrosia PUNOTULATA. 
Plate CXIII, fig. 5. 

I received a few eggs of this species, together with 
the parent moth, from Mr. J. H. Wellman, of London, 
on June 14th, 1876. They were oval, and of a dingy 
smoke-colour. 

The young larvse emerged on the 25th of the same 
month, and in colour were uniformly bright yellow. 
They were fed upon birch, and by the end of July had 
attained their full growth, when 1 took down my notes 
as follows : 

Length about an inch, and of moderate bulk in pro- 
portion ; the head has the lobes rounded, and is about 
the same width as, or a trifle narrower than, the 
second segment ; body of uniform width throughout, 
rounded above, but a little flattened ventrally ; seg- 
mental divisions well-defined, and each segment rather 
numerously divided transversely into sections, which 
give the skin a somewhat rough appearance. 

Ground colour a bright apple-green, the head tinged 
with yellow ; two yellowish-white lines, having a 
yellowish pulsating line between them, form the dorsal 
stripe ; subdorsal lines yellowish-white, and there are 
two other lines of the same colour, but much finer and 
indistinct, between them and the spiracular region ; 
segmental divisions yellow. 

The ventral surface is of the same colour as the 



TEPHR0S1A PUNCTULATA. 43 

dorsal area, with pale central and side lines, and the 
segmental divisions yellow. 

The larva forms a cocoon below the surface of the 
ground, by drawing particles of earth rather firmly 
together with silken threads. 

The pupa is nearly half an inch long, and mode- 
rately stout in proportion ; it is of the ordinary cylin- 
drical shape, attenuated to the anal point, which is 
not very sharp ; the wing-, leg-, antenna-, and eye- 
cases are well defined, those of the antennae being con- 
spicuously ribbed ; there are also two short but dis- 
tinct points extending outwardly forward from the 
head. Colour almost uniformly dark mahogany-brown. 
(George T. Porritt, January 4th, 1878; E.M.M., March, 
1878, XIV, 235.) 



Gnophos obscukata. 
Plate CXIV, fig. 1. 

During the first week of August, 1877, I took this 
species not uncommonly on the heaths in the New 
Forest; and from one of the females eggs were ob- 
tained, which duly hatched about the third week of 
the same month. By the end of November the larvae 
were rather over half an inch in length, and still feed- 
ing occasionally, though they had not eaten much 
for several weeks. Towards the end of May follow- 
ing, 1878, they were full-grown, when I described them 
as follows : 

Length about three quarters of an inch, and rather 
stout in proportion. The head has the lobes rounded 
at the sides, but is flat in front, and there is a slight 
depression on the crown ; it is slightly narrower than 
the second segment, into which it can be partially 
withdrawn. Body of nearly uniform width, but slightly 
wider at the middle segments than elsewhere ; it is 
rounded above and below, but the two portions are 
distinctly separated by a wrinkled raised lateral ridge ; 



44 GNOPHOS OBSCURATA. 

the segments are clearly divided, and each is nume- 
rously ribbed transversely ; the tubercles are raised 
and rather large for a geometer; there is also a pair 
of short but conspicuous pointed prominences on the 
twelfth segment ; the anal segment is wedge-shaped, 
the apex pointing downwards behind. The various 
prominences and the unevenness of the skin give it a 
rather wrinkled appearance. Ground colour stone- 
grey, many specimens having a strong ochreous-purple 
tinge, others an undecided dull greenish tinge; head 
stone-grey, thickly marbled in different specimens 
with purplish-brown or smoke-colour ; a double pale 
grey line (the space on the anterior segments filled up 
with smoke-colour) forms the dorsal stripe ; and 
there is a similarly pale, but thread-like line above the 
spiracles. On each side of the fifth, sixth, seventh, and 
eighth segments a dark streak extends from the spira- 
cular region upwards anteriorly, becoming almost 
black before meeting in the centre on the front of 
each segment ; in the angle thus formed is a con- 
spicuous pale blotch ; in one or two larvas of the brood, 
however, these dark streaks are entirely absent, though 
the pale blotches are still distinct. Tubercles white 
or grey; spiracles large and round, intensely black; 
prominences on the twelfth segment grey, with distinct 
black streak on front of each. Ventral surface stone- 
grey or pinkish-grey, thickly freckled with very minute 
dark smoky spots ; it has a pale central stripe, edged 
on each side with a fine irregular smoky line, enclosing 
together another double smoky line ; there is also a 
pale stripe (varying much in colour in different speci- 
mens, in some being pinkish, in others yellowish) 
between the central stripe and the spiracular region; 
this stripe is edged inside with dark smoke-colour. 

The foregoing is a general description of the brood 
reared from the 'New Forest eggs ; but two larvae 
received from Mr. J. Gardner, of Hartlepool, were 
much darker, and the markings altogether stronger. 
One of them had a purplish ground, and the dark 



GN0FH08 OBSOURATA. 45 

streaks on the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth segments 
were much larger and broader, and the dorsal area 
altogether much blotched and marbled with this dark 
colour, which gave it a very irony appearance. The 
ventral surface was smoky, with the pale central 
stripe pinkish, and like the others enclosing the double 
smoky line. 

The larvae were fed on strawberry, and the first 
moth emerged on August 8th, a rather late date. 
(George T. Porritt, November 8th, 1879; Ent., 
January, 1880, XIII, 12.) 



Dasydia obfusoata. 
Plate OXIY, fig. 2. 

The eggs of this species were kindly forwarded to 
Mr. Buckler by Dr. F. Buchanan White in July 1869. 
Mr. Buckler took notes of the egg-state, and of the 
young larvae till hybernation commenced, and from 
that period handed them over to rae. 

The larvae were hatched during August and the 
early part of September, fed readily upon Galluna 
vulgaris, and just as readily on Polygonum aviculare, 
attained the length of rather more than a quarter-inch 
before hybernation near the end of October; began 
feeding again towards the end of March, 1870 ; 
moulted some time during the first fortnight of April, 
and again in May, and by the end of June the most 
advanced were full fed, but they did not all keep pace 
together. 

The moths appeared from August 17th to Sep- 
tember 5th. 

The egg is shortish-oval in outline, flattened ; the 
shell ribbed with lines of fine beads ; the colour at 
first yellowish- white, changing in a few days to salmon, 
and again, shortly before hatching, to bluish-grey, the 
ribs, however, showing white to the last. Judging 
from those sent by Dr. White, the eggs appear to be 



46 DASYDIA OBFUSCATA. 

laid in little groups of two or three or even more to- 
gether, and to be set up on end, on the sprays of heather. 

On hatching, the young larva makes its escape from 
the top of the egg-shell, and even at this early age 
has, for a geometer, a stout figure ; its colour is pale 
leaden-grey, with a paler subdorsal line, which is 
bordered below with a darker grey stripe; the head 
blackish. 

Just before hybernation, when of the length of 
rather more than a quarter-inch, the larva is very 
rugose; its colour is now a dingy blackish-brown on 
the back and sides, with a broad subspiracular stripe 
of reddish or violet-grey, intersected by a blackish 
line ; the head blackish, with a grey spot on the crown 
of each lobe; an indistinct, dark, dorsal stripe, edged 
with fine grey lines ; the tubercular raised warts grey, 
the dorsal pair on the twelfth segment being more 
prominently raised than any of the others. 

As the larva grows it becomes lighter in colour, and 
when full-fed may be described as follows : 

Length not quite an inch, figure very stout and 
stiff, cylindrical in the middle, slightly flattened at the 
extremities ; the spiracular region forming a puckered 
ledge; head smaller than the second segment, and 
tucked in ; legs short. 

The ground colour grey, in some specimens be- 
coming gradually paler behind ; on the front segments 
a fine double dorsal line, enclosing a whitish-grey 
thread, but afterwards this double line appears only as 
a small elongated spear-head in the middle of each 
segment ; the subdorsal line is a fine waved pale 
thread, edged with black, and bearing thick dark 
dashes at the beginning and end of the segments ; the 
tubercular warts are whitish with dark rings, the 
dorsal pair on the twelfth are placed close together, 
and, being more developed than the rest, stand up as 
obtuse points ; the row of warts on the thirteenth 
segment above the anal flap are very small, and black 
in colour ; the spiracles are pale brown ringed with 



DASYDIA OBFUSCATA. 47 

black, and are placed in a stripe of dark grey, with 
darker dashes at the folds, and some fine dark streaks, 
wavy and sloping upwards ; this is followed by a line 
of whitish-grey, which melts into the grey or reddish - 
grey of the belly, the centre of which is buff, and 
bears a row of pairs of brown dashes down the middle, 
with five sets of curious curved pairs of streaks on 
either side at the folds between segments five to ten. 

The stout, stiff figure of this larva, its short legs, 
and its sluggish habits are all very congruous, but, as 
in former cases, I leave others to decide whether 
figure forms habits, or habits form figure. 

The larva spins under the surface of the soil, but, 
owing to the death of most of my stock just when 
they had disappeared for this purpose, I am not able 
to say anything of the pupa or cocoon. 

The " concave " outline of the costa of the fore-wings 
(see Stain ton's 'Manual,' vol. ii, p. 30) is very 
noticeable in the freshly bred moths, as they rest with 
expanded wings ; in the male the concavity is greater 
almost than that shown by Hyjpena proboscidalis, 
though, of course, the tip of the wing is rounded, and 
not at all falcate. (John Hellins, May 11th, 1871; 
E.M.M., June, 1871, VIII, 20.) 



BOLETOBIA FULIGINARIA. 

On the 23rd of June, 1882, I received a larva of 
this species from Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, together with 
a piece of fungus. 

The larva measured about an inch in length, and 
tapered very little, only just at each extremity, i. e. 
from the second segment to the head, which is of a 
roundish full character, as is also the hinder end. Beinor 
a geometer with twelve legs, both ventral pairs are 
equally well developed, and those segments bearing legs, 
the ninth and tenth, are shorter than the fifth, sixth, 



48 BOLETOBIA FULIGTNARIA. 

seventh, and eighth, which are not only longer but 
more plump at the sides, being deeply wrinkled only 
at the ends, w T hile the others have their deep transverse 
wrinkles farther apart. 

In colour its soft dark skin reminds one of some of 
the Lit! w six ; it is of a sooty grey-brown colour, very 
dark, approaching to blackness, but this is relieved by 
a number of fine longitudinal streaks of brownish- 
grey along the sides, and on the back by two lines of 
this colour enclosing the contracting and expanding 
blackish dorsal lines, and by subdorsal markings of 
velvety black, consisting of a thick oblong dash on 
either side in that region, about midway on each 
segment, followed close beneath by a fine short streak 
of brownish-grey ; the blackish-brown head is of dull 
dark colour like that of the body, and similarly marked 
a little with the grey-coloured streaks, but fainter ; the 
belly is entirely brownish-grey or leaden-grey, softer 
and smoother than elsewhere ; the anterior pair of 
tubercular round warts are smaller than the second 
pair of each trapezoid, and are of brownish-grey colour 
and slightly glistening, but the second or hinder pair 
of each trapezoid are larger and of bright ochreous- 
yellow, which 'still further relieves and ornaments 
the blackish ground colour ; these ochreous-yellow 
warts project and glisten, and also occur on each side 
of the segments in threes, the largest like those on the 
back occur near the beginning of a segment, the next 
size smaller about the middle, and the smallest lower 
and further back ; besides these there is a small grey 
glistening one, and below this occurs the small black 
round spiracle ; each wart emits a fine hair, though in 
the example I had many of these had been broken off 
and reduced to bristly stumps. 

The larva is a veritable geometer in its mode of 
progression. (William Buckler, 1882 ; Note Book TV, 
p. 136.) 

A few weeks since, my friend Mr. J. Trimmer 
Williams, of Foots Cray, kindly brought for my inspec- 



BOLETOBIA FULIG1NARIA. 49 

tion six very fine specimens of Boletobia fuliginaria, 
which he was interesting himself to sell for Mr. Edward 
Upton, of Bermondsey. Mr. Williams told me that he 
knew the history of the specimens, and that they could 
be depended on as genuine native London examples of 
this rarity. The simple fact of Mr. Williams offering 
them to his friends as genuine was in itself a good 
guarantee, and was sufficient to tempt me to obtain a 
pair. These I placed in my cabinet with every confi- 
dence, which opinion has since been confirmed beyond 
suspicion. 

Mr. Williams gave me at the time a short history of 
them, which I will here detail. I cannot do better 
than quote from one of his letters to me, in which he 
says, " Some few years since I was looking over 
some insects taken by Mr. Upton, when he called my 
attention to what he supposed was a variety of the 
common Fidonia atomaria, and which he kindly offered 
to give me, but I declined to accept it, telling him it 
might be of some value, although at that time I did 
not know the name of the insect. I, however, exhi- 
bited the specimen (which was a very large one, and 
not quite perfect) at a meeting of the South London 
Entomological Society, when Mr. Farn at once recog- 
nised it as Boletobia fuliginaria. Mr. Upton was told 
of the rarity of his capture, and advised to keep a good 
look-out for more." 

This he has evidently done, and each year since 
Mr. Upton has taken an odd specimen, and in some 
years two or three, but generally wasted, sometimes 
only portions of wings found floating on water. All 
these specimens were taken near the river Thames. 
Last year Mr. Upton, after many failures, succeeded 
in discovering the larva feeding on fungus on rotten 
wood, and by dint of close search secured full-fed 
larva3, and also pupaa, from which he bred some twenty 
specimens ; and it was some of these bred examples 
that Mr. Williams offered to his friends. 

A few weeks later I arranged with Mr. Williams to 

VOL. VJf. 4 



50 BOLETOBIA FULIGINARIA. 

be introduced to Mr. Upton, who called upon me with 
him. The object of this visit was to ask me to meet 
them in Bermondsey, and see for myself the genuine- 
ness of Upton's discovery ; the reason assigned being 
that doubts had been expressed in some quarters as to 
the specimens being truly British moths. This was a 
very natural doubt without some proof, and one 
which I should most certainly have held, but from the 
fact of my relying on my friend's good faith, and that 
to me was above suspicion. However, I agreed to 
meet him and Mr. Upton to be conducted to the 
locality, which was on the 24th of May. It will readily 
be understood that I am not free to give the exact 
spot, as that would tend to deprive Mr. Upton of the 
fruits of his discovery. 

We were conducted to an old wooden building in 
Bermondsey, near the river, to a spot most difficult of 
approach, in an obscure light, consequent on its 
position ; and there, after a short search, Mr. Upton 
showed us the larva apparently feeding. In all he 
found four specimens. The food appeared to be a 
black sooty-looking fungus or mould. The position 
of the larvse, the surroundings, and the locality were 
such as would convince anyone, as they did me, that I 
had seen B. fuliginaria really and truly at home. 
But, to remove any possible doubt, if this queer- 
looking fungoid mass was the food of the larva, I 
suggested that it would be more absolutely conclusive 
if I could feed the larva on this pabulum at my leisure. 
At once Mr. Upton broke off a portion of this fungus- 
covered rotten wood, and, removing one of the larvse, 
gave it to me to bring home; and I have had the 
great satisfaction of seeing it not only eat, but thrive 
upon the fungus for the past three weeks, and of 
snowing it to several entomological friends. This, I 
think, establishes the genuineness of Mr. Upton's 
Boletobia fuliginaria beyond doubt. 

The larvae we saw on the 24th of May varied from 
about three-eighths to five-eighths of an inch long. 



BOLETOBIA FULIGINAKIA. 51 

The colour and markings then were very much of the 
same character as the now (June 14th) full-fed 
larva, which is about seven-eighths of an inch long, 
moderately stout for a geometer larva, cylindrical in 
form, attenuating slightly at the anterior and posterior 
segments. The ground colour is of a sooty-black, the 
dorsal line marked by ten pairs of orange-coloured 
raised tubercles, two on each segment. The four 
central segments have also a second pair of smaller 
and less distinct tubercles, from the region of which 
spring longish and curiously recurved hairs. The 
spiracular line is also indicated by a row of raised 
orange-coloured tubercles. 

When full-fed it spins up in the crevices of the 
rotten wood, and forms a fairly compact cocoon of 
greyish silk, the outside being coated with particles of 
fragments of wood and dried fungus. Three old 
cocoons, from whicli Mr. Upton had bred some of his 
insects last year, were handed to me, and these show 
most markedly the character of the wood on which 
grew the fungus where I saw the larva feeding in a 
state of nature. 

I forwarded a portion of this fungus-covered wood 
to Dr. M. C. Cooke, who is one of our ablest autho- 
rities on British fungi, and he most kindly determined 
it for me as an effused Muscedine, order Hyphomycetes, 
fam. Muscedines (see his ' Handbook of British Fungi,' 
p. 587). Dr. Cooke could not determine the genus, 
as it was not then in the stage of development 
necessary for identification. 

The larva was full-fed, and duly spun up its charac- 
teristic cocoon, on the 25th June. (W. H. Tugwell, 
June 14th, 1884; Ent., July, 1884, XVII, 153.) 

I was much gratified by finding, on the 14th of July, 
that an imago had emerged from the pupa mentioned 
above. The insect is a perfect female, and is a trifle 
smaller than those bred by Mr. Upton from pupae 
collected in their native habitat. This was doubtless 
caused by the difficulty I experienced in retaining a 



52 BOLETOBIA FULIGINAEIA. 

uniform balance of moisture in growing the fungus 
upon which the larva fed for three weeks after I 
obtained it. 

The life-history of Boletobia fuliginaria appears to 
be summed up as follows : — Ova deposited end of July 
or beginning of August ; larvaD hatch in August, and 
after hybernation continue feeding until the end of 
June of following year, when the pupa state lasts 
about three weeks, and the perfect insects appear about 
the middle of July. (W. H. Tugwell, July 20th, 1 884 ; 
Ent., August, 1884, XVII, 183.) 



NEMORIA VIE1DATA. 

Plate CXIV, fig. 5. 

Last summer (1864) Mr. McLachlan kindly sent 
eggs of this species to Mr. Buckler and myself, and 
we were successful in rearing several larvse. I should 
not, however, have said anything about them, had they 
not been of a variety differing considerably from that 
to which the description by Borkhausen in Stainton's 
Manual must refer. 

The larvao were hatched on the 30th June, 1864, 
being then of a saffron-yellow colour. They chose 
for their food whitethorn, especially preferring the 
young pale summer growth, and the tender shoots 
thrown up from stems cut off close to the ground. 
That they should make this choice, and thrive on it, 
seems strange, for I have generally observed that the 
summer growth of trees and bushes is not such whole- 
some food for larvas as the older firmer foliage. 

Some of this batch of N. viridata escaped, and I 
afterwards captured one of the runaways feeding on a 
withered poplar leaf ; but this was evidently only from 
starvation, and the larva never recovered sufficiently 
to become a pupa. 

The remainder of them were full-grown about the 
last week in August, being then about seven-eighths 



NEM0RIA VIRIDATA. 53 

of an inch in length. In form they were rather 
slender, somewhat flattened, and tapering towards 
the head ; the head and second segment acutely bifid ; 
the anal segment ending in a pointed flap ; the whole 
skin rough with fine granules. 

The ground colour was either a full clear green or 
a yellow-green ; the granules of the skin whitish ; the 
points of the head and second segment red ; a purple- 
red stripe down the back, or in some individuals this 
was interrupted on the middle segment, and, with 
some small whitish dashes, formed five acute diamonds ; 
the subdorsal line whitish ; the spiracular line yellowish 
or whitish-green, in some specimens having in it small 
purplish spots on the eighth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh 
segments ; the belly with subspiracular and central 
pale lines ; the true legs light red. 

In habit these larvse were quiet, generally resting in 
an extended rigid posture. About the beginning of 
September they drew the leaves of their food together 
with a few threads, and changed to pupse, rather 
truncated in front, but slender and pointed behind ; 
colour, a dull pale ochreous, head and wing-cases 
dusky, with a faint tinge of olive-green ; a dark line 
down the back ; the spiracles showing black, and two 
short dark lines along the belly. (John Hellins, 
E.M.M., April, 1865, I, 263.) 



lODIS VERNARIA. 

Plate CXV, fig. 1. 

The eggs are laid in July in a very singular manner, 
as first pointed out to me by Mr. Wright. The female 
selects a twig of the food-plant, Clematis vitalba (wild 
clematis or traveller's-joy), and standing lengthwise 
on a twig deposits an egg on the rind, never on a leaf ; 
the egg is somewhat longer than broad, and very flat. 
After a short interval a second egg is laid on the top 
of this, and again, after another interval, a third, a 



54 IODIS VERNARIA. 

fourth, and so on, until a little pile of twelve or 
fourteen stands out at right angles with the twig like 
a lateral twig or thorn. Under a lens of moderate 
power this pile of eggs exactly resembles a stack of 
oblong cheeses, symmetrically arranged one on the 
other. In some instances, when the parent has been 
restless, or disturbed in mind, or dissatisfied with the 
spot she had first selected, she has abandoned her 
egg-tower when only three storeys high. But this is 
not usual; she generally continues her labours until 
a dozen eggs are thus carefully adjusted in a pile : the 
lowest number yet observed in this columnal structure 
is three, and the highest fourteen. The eggs are not 
angular as in a column of basalt, but the arrangement 
is precisely similar. In one instance that came under 
the notice of Mr. Jennings the pile of eggs was 
branched, thus assuming the form of the letter V. 

The eggs usually hatch during the first week in 
July, and the young larvae disappear, after feeding a 
little, with the leaves of the food-plant, and reappear 
after hybernation, as soon as the leaves of another 
season are ready for them in the spring. The most 
likely spots for finding these larvse are on the shoots 
trailing on the ground, or at a very slight elevation. 
When the larvaB leave the egg they are very interest- 
ing little objects ; they stand on the general or partial 
leaf-stalks, or sometimes on the edge of the leaf, in a 
variety of attitudes ; some parallel with the object on 
which they are resting; others forming an obtuse 
angle with it ; others erect ; and others looped, after 
the ordinary manner of geometers when travelling. 
The second segment has two pointed horn-like pro- 
jections directed forwards, and concealing the head if 
viewed from above ; they are of a pale green colour, 
the surface of the skin frosted with white, the tips 
of the horn-like projections tinged with red, brown, or 
purple, and the head deep purple, contrasting strongly 
with the almost colourless body. 

About the middle of last June the Rev. P. H. Jen- 



10DIS VERNARIA. 55 

nings most kindly supplied me with a number of 
the larvse of I. vernaria ; and when quite full-grown 
I described one as follows : 

Rests in nearly a straight position, firmly attached 
by its anal and ventral claspers to a twig or leaf-stalk 
of its food-plant, from which it projects with the 
rigidity of a stick at an angle of about 45 degrees ; 
the head is prone, deeply divided on the crown, and 
the two divisions are produced into acute points, 
directed forwards like ears ; the face is flat, and 
the mouth bent under and brought into contact with 
the legs, which are massed together, forming a lump 
beneath the head ; the body is dilated on the sides by 
the presence of a rigid skinfold, almost resembling a 
lateral keel ; the second segment is produced dorsally 
into two acute points, similar to those of the head, but 
rather longer, and, like these, directed forwards ; the 
ninth, tenth, and eleventh segments are incrassated ; 
the anal flap is triangular and pointed ; it is equal in 
length to the anal claspers ; the body is transversely 
wrinkled, and every part of the head and body is 
finely shagreened. The colour of the head and legs 
is purple-brown; the body is green, exactly of the 
same tint as the twigs of the clematis on which it 
feeds ; and the frosted appearance of the surface (each 
point of the shagreen being tipped with white) makes 
the resemblance to a growing and succulent twig still 
more exact ; the spiracles are ochreous. 

On the 26th of June the first larva changed to a 
pupa, and on the 8th of July to an imago ; the thorax 
of the pupa is smooth but. not glabrous, being coarsely 
punctured ; it is suspended by the tail, which is fur- 
nished with minute hooks adapted for the purpose, as 
in the Suspensi among the butterflies ; the colour is 
green, excepting the eyes and antennae, which are 
tinged with purple. (Edward Newman, Ent., August, 
1872, VI, 168.) 



56 PHORODESMA BAJULARIA. 

Phorodesma BAJULARIA. 
Plate OXV, fig. 3. 

Eggs were laid by a captured female in a pill-box 
on the 23rd of June, 1864; they were large in pro- 
portion to the size of the insect, oval, brownish, finely 
reticulated ; they hatched on the 11th of July. 

Food of larva — oak. 

Larva at first brownish, mottled, hairy ; four bunches 
of green and white atoms along each subdorsal line, 
and a bunch on the anal segment, the gnawings of oak. 
Until I had ascertained, by watching a young larva 
emerge from the egg, that it came out naked, I could 
scarcely believe that these ornaments were not part 
of itself, as every individual was so adorned, though 
apparently only just hatched. The one of whose birth 
I was an eye-witness was immediately removed to a 
separate box, and supplied with the petal of a rose, 
from which, in a few minutes, it made up nine rosy 
" favours," and fastened them one by one, with perfect 
regularity, upon its back. I then restored the rosy- 
favoured to its green-and-white-favoured companions, 
and it very soon joined them in gnawing away at the 
oak leaves, for nourishment now, having first satisfied 
the (shall I not say ?) natural craving for dress. 
They fed on slowly till the cold weather began, when 
they fixed themselves to the under side of the oak twigs, 
in a doubled-up posture, and looked like little round 
tufts of vegetable debris. I kept them through the 
winter in an arbour open to the air, and did not lose 
one. In April I put into their flower-pot some fresh 
twigs of oak, and split some of the buds. On the 18th 
of April they began to bore round holes in the buds 
that had not been split, and to clean out the inside, 
seeming quite to despise my rough endeavours to help 
them. When they were nearly full-fed I made the 
following description of one of them, having stripped 
off the tufts on one side for the purpose : 



PHORODESMA BAJULARIA. 57 

Body flattened, attenuated towards the head, which 
is of the same colour as the body, reddish-brown. 
Dorsal line and wavy subdorsal line fuscous, a row 
of dark fuscous spots underneath the spiracles. On 
each segment from the fifth to the ninth (both in- 
clusive) is a pair of dark brown papillse, one outside 
each subdorsal line, with a dark spot on the apex, 
furnished with a single hooked bristle (easily seen 
through a good glass), and also a pair on the twelfth 
segment, to which the gnawings are attached with 
silk. Being very curious to know how this was done, 
I put the half undressed individual just described into 
a box covered with glass, together with an oak bud 
just bursting into leaf. After surveying his new 
abode, previous to eating, he firmly fixed himself by 
his claspers (anal prolegs) to the bottom of the bud, 
took hold of one of the brown scales encasing the bud 
by the top with his jaws, and drew it with some force 
towards him, with the intention of pulling it off if 
loose (as some which he afterwards tried were) ; but 
as it was still firmly fixed at its base, after two or 
three strong pulls he began to gnaw it off at the base ; 
having effected which, he took it between his legs, 
turned it invariably with the convex side towards him, 
which he overlaid with silk, and then, taking it in his 
jaws, turned back his head and fixed it by the convex 
side to one of the naked papillse, not contented with 
hooking it on, but winding silk about it at the point 
of connection. After putting on two or three pieces, 
he refreshed himself by eating for a few minutes. 
The new piece was not always put on a vacant papilla, 
but sometimes fastened with silk to another piece on 
a papilla already covered. The larva, at this stage of 
its existence, used almost exclusively the brown scales 
of the buds, probably as being so easily detached, but 
did not seem to care whether they were long or short, 
rounded or pointed; consequently the tout ensemble 
had certainly a ragged and untidy appearance, com- 
pared with the neatly cut and symmetrically arranged 



58 PHORODESMA BAJULARIA. 

habiliments of earlier life. The time, too, taken by 
the full-grown larva over dressing was much greater 
than that required by the active infant. Although it 
had only one side to dress, it took some hours about 
it. I began my experiment about 6 p.m., and the 
dressing was not over at ten ; but next morning I 
found all the papillse covered. 

Every time the larva changed its skin, the dress of 
course was changed with it ; and when, on the 25th 
of May, it changed to pupa (of the same colour as the 
larva), it was enclosed in a very loose network, formed 
of the bits that covered it as a larva, fastened together 
with silk, and attached to the under side of a twig. 

The first imago came out on the 20th of June. 
(E. Horton, July, 1865; E.M.M., September, 1865, 
II, 91.) 

I read Mr. Horton' s note on this species [given 
above] with great interest, and should like to add one 
or two observations of my own to his full and accurate 
account. 

On the 3rd of July last (1865) Dr. Hearder kindly 
sent me some eggs, the larvae from a portion of which 
were hatched on the journey and came to me already 
dressed (oak leaves having been put in with them), 
but a few were still remaining in the egg, and gave 
me an opportunity of seeing them emerge in their 
nakednesSo It happened that, on two occasions, a 
couple of larvas were hatched in their pill-box, whilst 
I was not at hand to put them at once on their food, 
and so great was the innate desire of dress, that each 
time I found one of the pair had killed his brother 
and stuck his carcase upon his own back ! When, 
however, they had once tasted oak, I saw no more of 
this fratricidal wickedness. As to their re-adornment 
after a change of skin, I fancy, but am not quite sure, 
that they remain close by the cast skin, and pitch off 
from it their old bits of clothes, and stick them on 
their backs first, but, of course, as they grow bigger 
they add larger scraps. 



PH0R0DESMA BAJULARIA. 59 

About the middle of August one of my larvae had so 
far outstripped the rest in growth that I sent him to 
Mr. Buckler, who, having first depicted him "dressed" 
with a great deal of trouble pulled off all his cover- 
ings, and took a second figure of him " naked ; " after 
this there was no attempt to replace the lost dress, 
but, after feeding a few days longer, by the end of 
August the larva changed into a pupa, without any 
covering or fastening whatever. All the rest of my 
larvae are now feeding very slowly, and will probably 
hybernate when about half-grown. 

If the oak leaves supplied to them are tender, I 
notice they are eaten in the usual way, but the harder 
and drier leaves are turned into skeletons, all the net- 
work of ribs and veins being left untouched. 

I must conclude with saying that I cannot call the 
head of this larva bifid ; in this point it differs from 
all the other British Geometridae. (John Hellins, 
September 9th, 1865 ; E.M.M., October, 1865, II, 
114) 



PlIORODESMA SMARAGDAR1A. 

The eggs of Geometra smaragdaria are laid in July 
on the stems and leaves of Artemisia maritima, gener- 
ally near the top of the shoots. When first laid they 
are of a light yellowish colour, changing in about a 
fortnight to dark greyish, soon after which the young 
larvae emerge, and immediately cover themselves with 
minute portions of their food-plant, which they attach 
to their bodies with some glutinous secretion so 
firmly that it is very difficult to remove them. It 
seems a matter of great importance to these larvae 
that they should so cover themselves ; for a few eggs 
laid by a female which I had temporarily placed in a 
chip-box, being firmly attached to the side of the box, 
were left there until they hatched, when the young 
larvae, having no Artemisia to operate upon, appro- 



60 PHORODESMA SMARAGDAR1A. 

priated the loose splinters and other small particles 
that were inside the box, and attached them to their 
bodies, giving themselves a most singular appearance 
when viewed under a lens, not unlike that of miniature 
porcupines. On putting them into a glass jar with 
some Artemisia they very soon changed their costume, 
and, on looking at them a few hours afterwards, I 
found them covered with fragments of their food- 
plant, as in their natural state. 

The larvae during the whole of their existence keep 
the body in an arched position, except when feeding, 
when they stretch themselves out a little ; but on the 
slightest alarm they again assume the curved position, 
with the anal claspers fixed to the plant, and the pro- 
legs drawn up close to their bodies. They feed rather 
slowly, and for about three weeks after emerging from 
the egg appear like little balls of white wool, from 
being covered with the mealy portions of the Artemisia. 
As the larva increases in size, it increases the length 
of the morsels of the food-plant it attaches to its 
body, which on some adult larva? are often three- 
quarters of an inch in length. When the pieces are 
first attached to the body they are, of course, green 
and fresh, but they soon become discoloured, and in a 
few days are withered and brown ; then the larvae, in 
their curved position, so exactly resemble the dead 
shoots of their food-plant that they are extremely 
difficult to detect, unless some movement betrays them, 
or one is familiar with their peculiar appearance. 
Thus it is evident that the object of the larvae in 
attaching these pieces to their bodies is for the purpose 
of protection against their numerous enemies. 

The larvae continue feeding till about the end of 
October, by which time they have attained the length 
of one-half to three-quarters of an inch, after which 
they fix themselves to the food-plant, and remain 
motionless during the winter months. With the first 
warm days of spring, towards the end of February, 
they begin moving ; and about the first week of March, 



PHORODESMA SMARAGDARIA. 61 

when the Artemisia is again appearing above the 
ground, they commence feeding, soon after which they 
moult and again cover themselves with pieces of the 
food-plant, which, being now green and fresh, give 
them a healthy appearance. About the middle of 
June they are full-grown, when they rest for a day or 
two, and then spin a loose network cocoon; this they 
form by drawing together, with silken threads, the 
pieces of the Artemisia that are thickly adhering to 
their bodies, into an oval-shaped covering attached to 
the stem of the food-plant, and in it they change to a 
greyish pupa, with the striped wing-cases showing very 
distinctly. 

The larva, when full-fed, is about an inch and a 
quarter long, of a dirty greyish colour, with darker 
lines along the body, the skin very rough, and the head 
and legs brown ; but, owing to its being covered so 
entirely with the dead and brown portions of the food- 
plant, it is extremely difficult to make out the exact 
markings. It sometimes feeds at dusk, but more fre- 
quently during the morning sunshine, and at times, 
when the sun is hot, it eats most voraciously, appearing 
in a very excited state during the whole time the sun 
is shining upon it. This necessity for sunshine consti- 
tutes one of the many difficulties the collector has to 
contend with in rearing these larva?, for the sun is, of 
course, a great obstacle to keeping the food fresh. 
The only way to keep the food comparatively fresh is 
to dig up the Artemisia with a large clod of earth, so 
as not to disturb the roots, and even then it rarely 
keeps longer than a week. To be successful, therefore, 
with these larvse, a great deal of trouble must be 
undergone. 

The perfect insects appear about the middle of July, 
generally during the early morning, and remain 
motionless the whole of the first day, and I believe 
until daybreak of the next, for I have looked at them 
as late as twelve o'clock at night, and found them still 
motionless ; but, on again looking at them about seven 



62 PHORODESMA SMARAGDARIA. 

o'clock on the following morning, some had paired, 
remaining in copula during the whole of that day, but 
parting towards the evening. By the following morn- 
ing the females had commenced depositing ova, and 
continued to do so for four or five days, each laying 
about 150 eggs altogether, and some more. (George 
Elisha, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., December, 1886, p. 465.) 



Ephyra punotaria. 
Plate OXV, fig. 6. 

On the 28th of August, 1871, I received from the 
Rev. E. N. Bloomfield, of Guestling, near Hastings, 
a few eggs of this species. They hatched in a few 
days, and the young larva3 were pale greyish-green, 
rather broadly transversely barred with brown. At 
the end of September they were full-fed, and may be 
described as follows : 

Length about an inch, and of moderate thickness in 
proportion. Head very slightly wider than the second, 
but not wider than the third, segment (until full-fed 
it is considerably wider than the second) ; it is very 
finely notched on the crown, the cheeks are globular, 
and the face is flat. Body cylindrical, and of nearly 
uniform width throughout, the second segment being 
the narrowest, and the twelfth slightly the widest. 

In my brood were two distinct varieties, the more 
numerous of which I will describe as Var. 1. Ground 
colour pinkish-brown ; head chocolate-brown, varie- 
gated with grey. A narrow but distinct pale grey 
line, edged on each side with a smoky-black line of 
equal width, forms the medio-dorsal line ; an exceed- 
ingly fine and almost imperceptible waved grey thread 
forms the subdorsal lines ; and there is a similar line 
above the spiracles. On each side, and on each 
segment, commencing on the spiracular region, is a 
dark smoky mark extending obliquely upwards and 
uniting at the divisions on the anterior of each 



EPHYRA PUNCTARIA. 63 

segment ; eacli of these smoky marks is edged 
anteriorly with lemon-yellow. Usual dots minute, 
black. Ventral surface grey, with pink longitudinal 
lines. Some specimens have a much yellower appear- 
ance than others, with the oblique marks perfectly 
black, but edged with yellow in the same way. 

Var. 2. Ground colour bright emerald-green ; the 
head as in Var. 1 ; a narrow white line, edged with 
smoke-colour on the posterior segments, forms the 
medio-dorsal line ; subdorsal and spiracular lines 
scarcely perceptible. The oblique marks are brownish- 
red, surrounded with yellow, not so large as in Var. 1, 
and, unlike them, do not meet on the dorsal surface ; 
on the anal segment is a chocolate-brown wedge- 
shaped mark, edged anteriorly with pale yellow. 
Ventral surface uniformly green, thickly powdered 
with whitish. 

Feeds on oak, and rests in a very peculiar position, 
the food being grasped by the claspers, and the whole 
remaining portion of the body turned sideways against 
the food-plant, which gives it a very ludicrous appear- 
ance. There are two equally distinct varieties of the 
pupa ; those from the brown larvse being grey, and 
those from the green variety green. The first larva 
changed to a pupa on October 6th, and a moth ap- 
peared November 3rd. (George T. Porritt, November 
10th, 1871; E.M.M., January, 1872, VIII, 183.) 



Ephyra omicronaria. 

Plate OXV, fig. 8. 

The Eev. P. H. Jennings, of Longfield Eectory, 
Gravesend, very kindly gave me the opportunity of 
rearing the larva of this species by sending a few eggs 
on the 10th of June, 1875. They hatched on the 21st 
of the same month, and the newly emerged larvae 
were pinkish-browD, with the sides paler. Being 
supplied with maple and sycamore they fed on both, 



64 EPHYRA OMICRONARIA. 

though probably the former is the only food in a 
natural state. 

A larva being well grown by the 5th of July, I took 
down the following notes on it : — Length about an 
inch, and of average bulk in proportion ; the head has 
the face flat, but the lobes rounded, and is broader 
than the second segment. Body cylindrical, and of 
almost uniform width throughout; the ninth, tenth, 
and eleventh segments very slightly broader than the 
remainder. Skin smooth, but has a few scattered 
very short hairs ; segmental divisions well defined. 
Ground colour rather dark, but clear velvety green ; 
head chocolate-brown, with paler markings. Medio- 
dorsal line yellow; it commences on the head, and is 
conspicuous throughout the entire dorsal area ; sub- 
dorsal lines waved, also yellow, as are the subdorsal 
region and the segmental divisions. Spiracles and 
the usual tubercular dots distinct, black. Ventral 
surface pale green, with small black tubercles ; the 
segmental divisions black. 

The pupa is shaped like the others in the genus ; it 
is attached to the leaf at the tail, and by a belt of 
threads passing over the body in the same manner as 
in the Pieridse amongst the butterflies. It is about 
half an inch in length, stout and broad at the head, 
but gradually and evenly attenuated towards the anal 
extremity. Bye- and wing-cases prominent. Colour 
dull green tinged with yellow, and there are three 
yellowish lines throughout the entire length of the 
dorsal area ; the rest of the dorsal surface is marbled 
with brown, and the wing-cases have a deep smoke- 
coloured edging. The winter was passed in this stage. 
(George T. Porritt, April 7th, 1877; Ent.,May, 1877, 
X, 137.) 



EPHYliA ORBIOULARIA. 65 

EPHYRA ORBIOULARIA. 

Plate CXV, fig. 9. 

On the 29th of July, 1876, I received, through the 
kindness of Mr. J. G. Ross, of Bathampton, a dozen 
full-grown larvse of this species. 

Length about an inch, and of moderate bulk in 
proportion ; the head has the lobes rounded, is slightly 
notched on the crown, and is the same width as the 
second, but narrower than the third segment. Body 
cylindrical and of nearly uniform width throughout, 
the front and last three posterior segments, however, 
being slightly narrower than the middle ones ; the 
segmental divisions are well defined, and the skin has 
a somewhat tough appearance. Ground colour of the 
dorsal surface bright apple-green ; head pale brown, 
very prettily reticulated and spotted with dark brown, 
and two stripes of the paler brown colour running 
through each lobe are very conspicuous ; a pale greyish 
line, finely edged with dark green, forms the dorsal 
stripe ; the subdorsal lines are of the same colour, but 
waved throughout their entire length ; the whole of 
the spiracular region, including the space between the 
subdorsal and ventral regions, is in some specimens 
entirely white, but in others is very delicately and 
beautifully marked at regular intervals throughout the 
entire length, with blotches of pink or bright pale 
purple. On each side of the fifth, sixth, seventh, 
eighth, and ninth segments is an oblique smoky mark, 
each mark commencing on the front of the segment, 
and extending backwards into the pale spiracular area ; 
the usual dots and spiracles are distinct, black. The 
ventral surface is green, with five longitudinal white 
stripes, — a central one, and two on each side outside 
it ; the usual dots distinct here, too, and also black ; 
the prolegs tipped with pink. 

It feeds on sallow ; and when full-fed, like others 
in the genus, affixes itself to a leaf by the anal claspers, 

vol. vn. 5 



66 EPHYRA 0RBICULAR1A. 

and spins a band or belt round the middle of the body, 
exactly in the same manner as the Pieridx among the 
butterflies. 

The pupa varies from half to three-quarters of an 
inch in length, and is of the usual Ephyra shape and 
position. Head square and blunt, and from it the 
body is attenuated gradually and evenly to the anal 
point; the front and back are rounded, but are dis- 
tinctly divided by a lateral ridge, which extends a 
little beyond the head on each side, forming two short 
blunt points ; the back is also slightly arched. Ground 
colour of the pupa greyish- white, with the leg- and 
wing-cases veined with smoke-colour ; there is a pale 
grey longitudinal line through the centre of the back, 
and on each side of it a series of black dots. 

Two imagos emerged about the middle of August ; 
the remainder of the pupse stood over until spring. 
(George T. Porritt ; Ent., April, 1877, X, 97.) 



Ephyra pendularia. 
Plate CXV, fig. 10. 

In August, 1872, I beat rather commonly from 
birch, in Sherwood Forest, two very distinct varieties 
of the larva of this species, and am not aware that a 
description of either of them has been published. 

Length rather over an inch, and slender ; the head 
small, the same width as the second, but narrower 
than the third segment ; it has the face flattened, and 
is notched on the crown. Body of tolerably uniform 
bulk, attenuated slightly from the posterior to the 
third segment, which is swollen laterally. The skin 
has a very slightly puckered appearance, and the 
segments overlap each other, rendering the divisions 
conspicuous. 

Var. 1 has the ground colour pinkish-purple, in 
some specimens greyish-purple ; head dark sienna- 
brown, the mouth, and a line down each side the 



EPHYRA PENDULARIA. 67 

median suture, dull ochreous-yellow. Throughout the 
dorsal area extends a broad, pale, smoky band, having 
through its centre the pale grey medio-dorsal line ; 
bordering this band on each side are the interrupted, 
indistinct, similarly coloured subdorsal lines ; there 
are no perceptible spiracular lines, but that region is 
variegated with conspicuous pale grey marks. On 
the front of the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth 
segments is a very conspicuous brick-red transverse 
mark ; the spiracles and trapezoidal dots are distinct, 
black. The ventral surface is dull smoke-colour, with 
interrupted grey central stripe ; legs pale yellowish- 
brown barred with black, prolegs pinkish-purple. 

Var. 2 has the ground-colour bright green, and the 
head reddish-brown. Medio-dorsal line indistinct, 
yellowish-grey, edged on the second, third, and fourth, 
and again on the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth segments, 
with a dark green line ; subdorsal lines more distinct, 
yellowish-grey ; there are no perceptible spiracular 
lines,that region being variegated with yellowish-green ; 
the anal segment is of the same colour as the head, 
reddish-brown, but has in addition a yellow streak 
outside each clasper; spiracles and usual dots very 
minute, black; the segmental divisions yellow. The 
ventral surface is green with interrupted paler central 
stripe ; the legs and prolegs reddish-brown. 

The moths from both varieties have appeared during 
the present month (June, 1873). (George T. Porritt, 
June 10th, 1873; E.M.M., August, 1873, X, 71.) 



Hyria auroraria. 

Plate OXVI, fig. 1. 

This species is not one of the unknoivns, still I 
venture to give my notes on it, since the larvas I have 
seen differed not only among themselves, but also 
from the description given in the Manual after Guenee. 



68 HYRIA AURORARIA. 

In August, 1865, Mr. Batty, of Sheffield, sent me 
some young larvse, which were then, and continued 
afterwards, of a very dark variety. In 1866, Mr. 
T. Brown, of Cambridge, sent me some eggs, the 
larvse from which were very much paler than the 
former brood. I find the following dates recorded in 
my note-book : — Larvse hatched July 12th ; about 
half an inch long in October ; began to feed after 
hybernation about the end of February; full-fed about 
the beginning of June ; moths bred during the first 
half of July. 

These larvse fed on Polygonum aviculare, and, 
although very much of the Acidalia form and habit, 
did not, as many species of that genus do, show any 
preference for ivithered leaves over fresh. All, save 
one of the Sheffield brood, died during the winter of 
1865-6, whilst, as far as I could see, the much sharper 
frost of last winter made no impression on the Cam- 
bridge brood, which fed up well, though about a third 
of their number died in the final change. 

The Sheffield larvse, when small, were very dark 
brown — almost black — all over, but with a lens a 
slightly paler subdorsal line could be discovered, as 
well as some black dorsal central spots placed in a 
slightly paler space. The Cambridge larvse, whilst 
small, came near to the Manual description, for they 
were then dusky brown, with the anterior segments 
pale ochreous on the back, and the middle segments 
having pale diamond marks enclosing a central dusky 
spot ; but the full-grown appearance was quite 
different. 

When full-grown the larva is about three-quarters 
of an inch long, slender, rather flattened along the 
spiracles, tapering towards the head, which is small 
and bifid ; the skin a little wrinkled ; in fact, it is a 
slender form of the shorter (or aversata) type of Acidalia. 
The ground colour either brown or very pale grey ; 
in either case the anterior and posterior segments are 
much tinged with ochreous ; a dark, blackish, double 



HYRIA AORORARIA. 69 

dorsal line, commencing very tine and faint behind the 
head, but on segments five to nine suddenly growing 
thicker both in the middle of each segment and at 
each segmental fold, so as to form a series of nine 
pairs of dark curved dashes (alternately curving in- 
wards and outwards) ; on segments ten to twelve 
the dorsal lines become continuous again, but strong 
and distinct ; the blackish subdorsal line distinct on 
the front and hind segments, but splitting into two or 
three faint irregular threads on the intermediate ones ; 
one larva had also a strong black spiracular stripe 
beginning at the fourth segment, and ending at the 
anal pair of legs ; spiracles black ; the belly darker 
than the back, with a pale central line, and between it 
and the spiracles some curved oblique dark streaks, 
and a row of five black dots just below the spiracles 
on segments five to nine ; the ventral and anal legs 
tinged with blue. 

The larva makes tlie merest apology for a cocoon, 
just drawing together with, the greatest economy of 
silk, a few bits of moss and grass, between which the 
pupa can be easily seen ; this is slender, cylindrical, 
very smooth, with the wing-cases short and distinctly 
marked; colour a pale dull ochreous, wings finely 
outlined in black. (John Hellins, October 8th, 1867 ; 
E.M.M., December, 1867, IV, 158.) 

I am much pleased to be able to send a description 
of this species ; and for the opportunity of doing so 
I have to thank Mr. John Harrison, of Barnsley, who 
gave me a dozen larvae on the 4th of September, 1875, 
and further sent me a supply of eggs on the 19th 
of July last. 

The egg is large for the size of the moth, is oblong- 
square, with the edges rounded, and considerably 
depressed on the upper side ; the colour at first pink, 
afterwards olive-brown. 

The young larvae fed, but grew slowly, on knotgrass 
until autumn, when they ceased feeding, and remained 
rigid on the sides of the cage or on bits of stick, etc., 



70 HYR1A AURORARIA. 

through the winter, and well into the summer of the 
present year, as, at the time in spring when most 
other hybernating larvse were waking up, they persis- 
tently refused to show any signs of vitality beyond 
moving the front portion of the body backwards and 
forwards when touched. At this time they were about 
five-eighths of an inch in length, and were about the 
most soberly attired larvse I ever had, being in colour 
almost uniformly very dark dull brown (almost black 
in some specimens), and with the exception of a still 
darker double dorsal line, and being a little paler at 
the segmental divisions, there was no other colour or 
marking. The latter part of May having arrived, and 
finding they did not seem disposed to avail themselves 
of the various kinds of plants I endeavoured to induce 
them to accept as food, including Plantago major, 
Anemone nemorosa, etc., besides the Polygonum avicu- 
lare, I took them up into a warm room, and again 
gave them a plentiful and varied supply of provender. 
Here I had soon the satisfaction of finding that one 
of them had evidently set to work with a will, again 
on Polygonum aviculare, and by the 1st of July it was 
full grown, when I described it as follows : 

Length three-quarters of an inch ; can scarcely be 
called slender, though not stout ; head the same width 
as the second segment; it has the face flat, and is 
distinctly notched on the crown ; body somewhat flat 
when viewed from above, but rounded ventrally ; the 
ninth segment is the widest, and from it each becomes 
narrower to the head ; the four posterior segments 
are of nearly uniform width, and about as wide as the 
sixth ; the segments overlap each other considerably, 
rendering the divisions distinct, and also forming on 
each side a conspicuous lateral ridge ; the skin is 
ribbed transversely throughout, and has a tough wiry 
appearance ; in shape and habits it bears a very strong 
resemblance to many larvae of the Acidalise ; ground 
colour a medium shade of brown, with a very faint 
pink tinge, and also appears to be slightly powdered 



HYffcJA AUROftARIA. 71 

with greyish ; head brown, marked with greyish, — 
from it extends the distinct black donble dorsal line ; 
there are no perceptible subdorsal or spiracular lines, 
but the lateral ridge on each side is faintly outlined with 
pink ; the ventral surface is a mixture of dull brown and 
smoke-colour,with a distinct slate-coloured median line. 

This larva spun up next day, and was the only one 
I reared to maturity; the cocoon was loosely con- 
structed in an upper corner of the cage. 

I had no opportunity of describing the pupa until 
after the emergence of the imago, which event took 
place on the 18th of July. Afterwards I found the 
empty case to be five-eighths of an inch long, the wing- 
cases prominent, and the anal tip sharply cut ; colour 
reddish-brown, the wing-cases conspicuously streaked 
longitudinally with black. (George T. Porritt, 4th 
August, 1876; Bnt., September, 1876, IX, 197.) 



ASTHENA CANDIDATA. 

Plate CXVI, fig. 3. 

On the 14th of August, 1872, I received a larva 
from Mr. Harwood, feeding on birch. This geometer 
reminded me very much of Cidaria sagittata in its 
hunched posture, while the colouring was a good deal 
like that of Venusia cambricaria. 

The tubercles were warty eminences, each bearing a 
black finely-pointed hair or bristle. The larva was 
upwards of half an inch in length. Segments tumid, 
wrinkled, divisions deep. 

In colour it was very pale yellow-green, blue-green 
at each end, rather sulphur-yellow along the puffed 
spiracular region, the subdorsal stripe faintly whitish- 
yellow. Head clear greenish, marked on each lobe 
with black. All the legs pink. The second segment 
deep damask rose-pink on the back, faintly divided by 
a dorsal line of pale green just at the beginning. 



72 ASTHBNA CANDIDATA. 

This rich crimson colour continues on the third, fourth, 
and front of the fifth segments, bounded by the sub- 
dorsal stripes, within which it forms a broad stripe. 
It spreads on the fifth in a saddle-like way to the 
spiracles ; on the sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth 
segments there is an irregular triangular blotch of 
crimson ; on the spiracular region on the tenth to the 
anal extremity it is filled up with crimson between the 
subdorsal stripes. The spiracles are of the ground 
colour, outlined with blackish. The ventral surface is 
pale yellow-green, broadly blotched on all but the tenth 
segment with crimson on each side, softens towards 
the centre, and on the last three segments is paler 
pink. The pale yellow spiracular puffed region 
separates the crimson above and beneath. 

The larva spun up in a slight web of a cocoon, to 
which the pupa was attached by the tail. 

The pupa was three and a quarter lines long, of 
moderate stoutness, but the abdomen rather sharply 
pointed, ending in a small spike with three diverging 
bristly curved points or hairs. Its colour was pitchy 
black, the abdominal divisions bright ochreous orange. 

The moth appeared May 28th, 1873. (William 
Buckler, May, 1873 ; Note Book I, 191.) 



ASTHENA STLVATA. 

Plate OXVI, fig. 4. 

On the 15th of July, 1876, I was very glad to 
receive some eggs of this species, which had been 
obtained by Mr. J. Batty on the 4th of the month. 
The larvas were hatched on the 16th, fed away at once 
on alder, preferring all through their growth tender 
open leaves, but avoiding the sticky leaf -buds ; they 
grew rapidly, and by the 8th August were in their last 
skin, and in a few days more would have been full-fed, 
when I had the misfortune to get them killed. To 
replace them, Mr. Batty kindly sent me the larvaa he 



ASTHBNA SYLVATA. 73 

had been rearing himself, but I found these were by 
no means so far advanced as mine had been, for by 
August 15th they were not half-grown, and did not 
pass their last moult for another week ; however, by 
the beginning of September they had spun up. A 
larva captured by Mr. McLachlan in Devonshire, in 
1875, did not spin till the second week of September, 
whilst one lent for figuring in 1874 by Mr. A. H. 
Jones was nearly full-fed by July 17th. These dates 
for the maturity of the larva — varying from the middle 
of July to the middle of September — almost give 
time enough for a second brood, but I suppose the 
safer inference is that the single brood of moths has a 
flight of some duration. 

The egg is bluntish-oval in outline, flattened, the 
shell embossed all over with a small triangular pattern, 
the colour very pale yellowish-white throughout, no 
change taking place to the last ; hence it is necessary 
to watch very carefully for the hatching of the larvae, 
for there is nothing to give warning of their exit, and, 
being very delicate, they will soon die if not supplied 
with food. 

The newly hatched larva is of a very pale greenish - 
white tint, the head very slightly tinged with brown, 
the skin shining, the usual hairs fine, and whitish in 
colour. As the larva grows, and up to the last moult, 
it becomes more translucent ; when three-eighths of 
an inch long its figure is stumpy, the segments look- 
ing puffed, stoutest at the ninth, and thence tapering 
towards either end. The body now looks quite pellucid, 
except that the internal organs show as a pale dull 
green stripe down the back, and the puffed spiracular 
region is pale yellowish-green ; the small head black. 

With the last moult comes a complete change ; 
the pellucid look disappears, and a very handsome 
contrast of colours is seen, the tints of which, as 
usual, are much richer and deeper at first, becoming 
gradually paler as the larva approaches maturity. 

When full-fed the larva measures five-eighths of an 



74 ASTHENA SYLVATA. 

inch in length, or nearly tbree-fourths when fully 
stretched out, in figure stoutest at the ninth and tenth 
segments, tapering considerably towards the head, 
which is the smallest segment and has its lobes well 
defined, and not so much towards the tail ; this actual 
tapering of the figure appears much enhanced to the 
eye by the arrangement and outline of the markings ; 
all the segments are plump and well defined. 

A favourite attitude of the larva is to rest along the 
midrib at the back of a leaf, with the head held up ; 
the segments two to five kept close to the leaf, six to 
nine raised in an arch or sometimes a loop, and ten to 
thirteen again pressed close to the leaf. 

The colour of the head is shining blackish-brown, 
the triangular space between the lobes in front pinkish, 
barred across above the mouth with blackish-brown. 
The lip and base of papillae pinkish, the jaws blackish- 
brown. On the second segment is a narrow black 
shining plate, from which commences, on the back, a 
broad marking of dark purplish-brown, widening as it 
proceeds, and obliterating the pale yellow-green 
ground ; at the end of the fifth segment it reaches 
below the spiracles and begins to spread over the 
ventral surface, in some examples quite enveloping the 
whole body as far as the ninth, on which segment its 
colour becomes rosy-red, and thence narrows again as 
a dorsal stripe to the anal extremity ; this dark marking 
is darkest — almost black — on its lower edge, and has 
throughout a narrow edging of sulphur-yellow melting 
into the yellow-green below ; on each side of the fifth 
is a patch of yellow on the yellow-green ground, and 
there is an elongate yellow patch on each side of the 
ninth, showing very conspicuously on the dark colouring 
which there surrounds it. On the dark marking at the 
beginning of segments five, six, seven, and eight, is a 
squarish dorsal violet mark, whence slants backward 
on either side a whitish streak, thus forming nearly a 
perfect chevron pointing forwards ; the dorsal line can 
scarcely be traced on the thoracic segments, but thence 



ASTHENA SYLVATA. 75 

backwards it continues as a violet-white line to the 
anal extremity. On the dark marking the shining black 
tubercular warts project conspicuously from white 
rings, on the green portions they are also green, small 
in size, and escape notice ; the spiracles are also incon- 
spicuous, being small, and of the same colour as the 
segments on which they happen to come ; all the legs 
are yellow-green. 

The cocoon is placed just on the surface of the soil, 
and formed of small particles of earth, leaves, etc., 
fastened together with a tough, although not hard, 
lining of pale silk. 

The pupa is five-sixteenths of an inch in length, 
rather stout in proportion, the abdomen tapering off 
rapidly from the end of the wing-cases, and ending in 
four or five curled-topped spines of unequal lengths, 
but twisted together so as to look like a spike ; the 
eye-cases rather prominent ; in colour the wing-cases 
are tinged with greenish, all the rest mahogany-brown 
and shining. 

I have now made acquaintance with the earlier stages 
of three species of Asthena, namely, A. candidata, 
A. sylvata, and A. blomeri, and find them exhibiting 
as close a resemblance in these as in the perfect state. 
Of A. luteata I do not know so much, and am anxious 
to know more. (John Hellins, January 10th, 1877 ; 
E.M.M., February, 1877,^X111, 213.) 



ASTHENA BLOMERI. 

Plate OXVI, fig. 5. 

To Mr. W. H. Grigg, of Bristol, is due the credit of 
discovering the larva and food-plant of this species, 
which have baffled us so long. 

In July, 1873, Mr. Grrigg took the moths in some 
numbers, and found them to lay their eggs freely in 
chip-boxes, and he most kindly sent me a good supply 



76 ASTHENA BLOMERI. 

of them, together with information as to every kind 
of green thing that grew in their locality ; when, 
therefore, the larvse hatched, they were supplied with 
leaves of all the trees and plants which had been sug- 
gested, but they would touch none of them ; we then 
thought of lichens, and supplied them also, but with 
no better success ; all our young larvse died of star- 
vation. 

However, in September Mr. Grigg visited the 
locality again, and, after a good deal of hard w r ork, 
succeeded in beating from some wych elms growing 
there a large number of geometers ; most of them 
proved to be Abraxas ulmata, but with them were 
several others of a smaller species, which, from their 
likeness to the larva of Venusia cambrica, gave us 
great hopes. They were, however, horribly ichneu- 
moned, nine out of every ten being thus infested ; but, 
luckily, some three or four sound ones were secured, 
and this summer all doubt was removed by their ap- 
pearing in the imago state as A. blomeri. 

Being now sure of the food, Mr. Grigg again pro- 
cured eggs this summer, and generously halved his 
supply with me ; but the young larvse in confinement 
are so abominably restless and obstinate, that, although 
I had considerably more than a hundred eggs, I have 
been able to rear barely twenty-five larvse, and Mr. 
Grigg not so many. No wonder we failed with them 
last season, when together with wych elm we gave 
them so many other sorts of food to choose from, for 
now, with nothing but the wych elm leaves in their 
bottle, I found they would not feed at all, but would 
continually crawl to the light, and entangle themselves 
together till they were starved ; at last I shut them 
up with some twigs in a large tin box, making the 
cover quite secure by stuffing cotton wool all round, 
and left them to themselves for some days, and in this 
way I managed to rear the number above mentioned. 

This year (1874) the eggs were laid on July 9th and 
11th, the larvse hatching on the 18th and following 



ASTHENA BLOMERI. 77 

days, and now, as I write (August 14th), all are in 
their last skin, and several nearly full-fed. 

Last year (1873) I had the eggs during the last 
week of July and the first week of August, the larva3 
hatching from July 30th onwards, but living only a 
day or two ; the larvse, nearly full-fed, were captured 
during the last week in September, and the survivors 
among them changed to pupse in a few days. 

From the manner in which the moth deposits her 
eggs in any crevice in the chip-box, I imagine that in 
freedom she would arrange them in small batches along 
the ribs on the under side of the leaves, which in the 
wych elm are very prominent, and 1 noticed that the 
larvae prefer to remain on the under-side of the leaves 
throughout their existence, carefully spinning a thread 
wherever they move ; in feeding, at first they eat only 
the under surface of the leaf, but by the time they are 
a quarter of an inch long they eat holes quite through 
the leaves, generally avoiding the ribs, at last reducing 
them almost to skeletons. 

The egg is small, somewhat brick-shaped, being long 
and flattened, but one end is squarer and thicker than 
the other ; the shell glistening, and covered with a 
diamond pattern of sunk lines, each diamond having a 
central sunken dot (the egg of A. candidata has also 
this character of being embossed, as it were, by a 
pattern of sunk lines) ; the colour is at first pale, 
afterwards rich deep yellow, with the edges still 
deeper, and a red tinge near the bigger end ; at last 
becoming again quite pale, but with a dark spot. 

The young larva escapes by eating out one end of 
the egg; in colour it is whitish, with a purplish tinge 
in the front segments from the internal organs showing 
through ; as it grows it becomes quite shining white ; 
after the first moult it is glassy-looking and trans- 
lucent, with an internal green stripe through the body, 
probably caused by the presence of food ; when about 
three-eighths of an inch long it is more opaque, with 
the back whitish-green, a broad dark green subdorsal 



78 ASTHENA BLOMERI. 

stripe, the head greenish- white, all the rest pale green ; 
the bristles conspicuous. 

Soon after attaining the length of three-eighths of 
an inch it passes its last moult, and after that grows 
rapidly ; the markings are at first paler in the lighter 
portions, and darker in the dark portions, than they 
become afterwards. 

The full-fed larva is about three-quarters of an inch 
long, slender, but cylindrical and plump, of almost 
uniform size throughout, except that the head is nar- 
rower than the second segment, and the last three 
segments taper off both in width and in thickness ; the 
skin is soft and rather glossy, wrinkled at the divisions, 
puckered along the sides, and set with a few hairs. 

The general colour on the back and sides is pale 
greenish-yellow, the belly slightly greener ; the crown 
of each lobe of the head is marked with a streak of 
crimson-brown ; the collar is shining ; on segments 
two to four is a long oval dorsal patch of pinkish or 
crimson-brown, widest on the third, and ending in a 
blunt point at the division between the fourth and fifth; 
through this runs a central thread of yellow, bordered 
with an edging of brown, darker than the patch, which 
has also a darker line running along just inside its 
outer curved edge. About the middle of the sixth 
commences a pair of lateral blotches, which run 
through the seventh and eighth, of either rose-pink or 
crimson-brown, having a streak of darker brown just 
in the place of the subdorsal line. These blotches have 
waved edges, which nearly meet at the segmental 
divisions both above and below. Through segments 
five to eleven inclusive there is no dorsal line what- 
ever, but on the twelfth and the beginning of the 
thirteenth, in the place of the dorsal line, is a broad 
stripe of rose-pink, bearing at each end a dark spot of 
crimson-brown. The spiracles are roundish, but very 
hard to be seen, being greenish-yellow on the ground 
colour, and brown on the coloured blotches ; so too 
with the usual warts, on the ground they are scarcely 



ASTHENA BL0MERI. 79 

to be seen, but on the blotches they become prominent, 
shining, and dark brown. 

The above description applies to all the larvae I have 
reared this season, for there is scarcely any variation 
amongst them, but among the captured larvae last 
year there was a great deal ; this was shown not only in 
the depth of colour of the blotches, but also in their size, 
and by their absence ; one variety was greenish-yellow 
all over, with no markings whatever ; another had the 
blotch on the second, third, and fourth, and a dot on 
the twelfth segment, and nothing else ; another had a 
dark dorsal spot in the middle of the fifth ; another 
had a similar spot on the sixth, almost connecting the 
lateral blotches ; the example had a dark spot on the 
side of the anal lesfs. 

The larvse last year (1873) retired into the earth 
furnished, them for pupation, and there made weak, 
roundish, oval cocoons, nearly half an inch long, and 
formed of peaty fibres and earth, spun together with 
a slight lining of silk. 

The pupa is about one-third of an inch long, plump 
in character, the abdomen tapering rather suddenly to 
a point, which ends in two slightly diverging curled- 
topped bristles, these last being attached to the threads 
that line the cocoon ; its colour a light reddish-brown ; 
the tumid margins of the wing-covers yellowish- 
ochreous ; the centres of the wings and the antenna- 
cases olive ; the tip of the abdomen black. (John 
Hellins, August 14th, 1874 ; E.M.M., September, 
1874, XI, 87.) 



EUPISTERIA HEPARATA. 

Plate CXVI, fig. 6. 

On the 2nd of July, 1873, I received a few larvae of 
this species from Mr. A. H. Jones, of Eltham, and on 
the 5th I described them as follows : 

Slender, length about five-eighths of an inch ; head 



80 EUPISTEEJA HEPARATA. 

the same width as the second segment, globular, and 
slightly notched on the crown ; body cylindrical, and 
of nearly uniform width throughout ; each segment is 
plump in the middle, which makes the divisions 
distinct ; skin clothed with a few short scattered hairs. 
Ground colour bright green ; head glaucous-green, 
with a large black ocellus on the upper part of each 
lobe ; the mandibles brown. A broad velvety black 
band extends throughout the dorsal area, and is inter- 
sected by the pale greenish-yellow indistinct dorsal 
line ; it is also edged on each side with a clear yellow 
stripe, which is again divided into black squares by 
clear yellow segmental divisions; these black squares 
vary in intensity in different specimens, in some only 
occupying the anterior of the segment, the other half 
being of the ground colour ; all have a mark of the 
ground colour, varying in size, on the posterior part 
of the segments. The sides are minutely dotted with 
grey, and there is a very indistinct yellowish line 
along the spiracular region. Ventral surface, legs, 
and claspers green, of a darker shade than the ground 
of the dorsal surface. When young, the black dorsal 
band, so conspicuous in the adult larva, is absent. 

Feeds on alder, and shortly before spinning up the 
colour entirely changes, becoming dark green with 
purple tinge, and the segmental divisions purple. 

My larvse spun loose cocoons amongst the leaves, 
etc., but in a state of nature they probably form them 
amongst moss, etc., on the trunks and about the roots 
of alder. (George T. Porritt, 26th June, 1874 ; Ent., 
August, 1874, VII, 175.) 



ACIDALIA O0H.RATA. 

On the 9th of July, 1878, I received about thirty 
eggs of this species from Mr. E. G. Meek, who had 
found the moths plentifully on the 6th near Deal (its 



AOIDALIA OCHRATA. 81 

old locality), "occurring amongst the coarse shore grass 
and Ononis arvensis and a few sprays of yellow bed- 
straw (Galium verum)" the only plants growing in the 
spot where the insect appeared, of about thirty feet by 
fifteen, although there are some five miles of suitable 
ground. 

In shape the egg is oval, boldly ribbed and finely 
reticulated, and of a whitish straw-colour. 

On the 17th the eggs became a decided straw-yellow, 
and on the 18th, a remarkably hot day, they turned 
brown, and in the evening they hatched. 

The young larvse were at first of a drab colour, 
with brown heads, and the next day showed a dark 
internal dorsal line. On grass, restharrow, knotgrass, 
and Galium verum being offered them as food, they 
chose the Galium, showing rather a partiality for 
the flowers, and rested often at first in a coiled position, 
but more often in a loop. 

By the 23rd they had become reddish-pink, with 
heads a deeper pink, and with rather a purplish-pink 
or grey dorsal line. 

By the 29th two or three had moulted ; these by 
August 2nd showed decided lines down the back, and 
notably double dark grey dorsal lines enclosing a paler 
fine thread, and blackish on the sides of the belly, 
showing as four dark spots at the side of the spiracular 
region. Two being dead now reduced the number of 
larvse to twelve. 

On the 13th August only eight or nine remained 
alive. The most forward had again moulted, and 
was more of a dark greyish colour than before, but 
yet with a reddish ground ; the skin very rugose, and 
the segments overlapping at the sides and somewhat 
flattish on the back — a true Acidalia. 

On the 15th I discovered that the larvae like flowers 
of Lotus comiculatus, from one supplied to them yester- 
day as an experiment. 

On the 17th I saw them eating off the yellow 
covering from the seed-vessels of Galium verum, but I 
vol. vir. 6 



82 ACIDALIA OCHRATA. 

found they took no notice of the Lotus flowers whilst 
fresh, but only attack them when withering. 

By the 24th of August, when fully stretched out, 
they were nearly three-sixteenths of an inch in length, 
and already exhibited the tremulous motions for which 
this genus is remarkable. Their colour is now a paler 
pinkish than before. 

By the 31st, six of the eight had moulted, and were 
now much darker again, and their pattern of markings 
could with a lens be seen much better ; the dorsal fine 
palish thread is enclosed within two dark reddish-grey 
stripes ; the paler pink subdorsal stripe follows, finely 
edged outside only with dark grey, which is black just 
at the end of a segment, and at each end of the body ; 
the sides pinkish-grey; the spiracular line pinkish- 
white ; the belly dark pinkish-grey, with a black sub- 
ventral spot on each side of a segment ; very rugose, 
with short stubbly bristles. 

On August 20th, 1880, 1 received from Mr. Tugwell, 
of Greenwich, ten young ]arvse of this species, and, 
just as before described, they had been fed with flowers 
of Galium verum and Solidago virgaurea, and I placed 
them on the former plant in a pot for hybernation. 

On November 2nd I received from Mr. Tugwell a 
full-grown example, fed latterly and still feeding on 
flowers of Grepis virens, seeming to like them in a 
withered state better than fresh. 

The larva measures when stretched out three- 
quarters of an inch in length, and is of good substance 
though of rather slender character. Its ventral pair of 
legs is on the eleventh segment', it is stoutest at the tenth, 
and gently tapers thence to the fourth, then decidedly 
more to the head, which is of a full and roundish 
character, though notched a little on the crown, the 
lobes well defined, and broadest low on the cheeks, 
the antennal papillae long in proportion. On each of 
the segments between the fourth and tenth there are as 
many as twelve transverse wrinkles, so that it is rugose ; 
the segmental divisions are tolerably well defined, 



ACIDALIA OCHliATA. 83 

particularly along the sides, where the spiracular region 
is puffed out, and there shows each break distinctly 
enough, and also gives rather a flattened appearance to 
the body both above and below. 

In general colour it is of a whity-brown, rather 
inclining to a buff tint ; the back of pale brown has 
twin lines of dark grey deepening almost to black 
as they approach the posterior segments, and they 
enclose a thread-like line of the ground colour ; a sub- 
dorsal stripe faintly paler. The back is defined with a 
ragged edging of atoms of grey-brown ; a narrower 
line follows, defined faintly in the same manner ; the 
spiracular stripe is the palest tint of buff, almost 
whitish ; the spiracles are excessively small and black ; 
a small dark grey or blackish mark is at the end of 
each segment from the fifth to the tenth inclusive, just 
at the lower edge of the subdorsal, very faint on the 
intermediate segments, strongest on the ninth and 
tenth ; on this last another dark mark occurs beneath 
the pale spiracular stripe in a similar relative position. 
The belly is of the same colour as the back, and has 
a central pale stripe on each segment, bordered with 
pale grey, which is dark and distinct just at the end 
of each segment, and two paler stripes approximating 
a little towards each of the anterior segmental divi- 
sions, suggestive of a lyre; the usual tubercular 
bristles are very short, and whity-brown. The spira- 
cular region of A. ochrata is an inflated projecting 
ridge, which in colour bears a stripe of whitish flesh 
tint, the palest part of the pale larva. The head is 
pale pinkish flesh-colour, finely freckled with brown, 
the tips of the papilke brownish. When the larva 
bends down its head beneath the belly the segmental 
divisions on the back appear then brownish as they 
open a little. There are twelve wrinkles across each of 
the long segments, a less number but rather deeper 
in the shorter ones, so that the body appears to be 
composed of a numerous series of narrow rings. 

By the 8th November the larva had fed well and 



84 ACIDALIA 0CHRATA. 

grown to be nearly seven-eighths of an inch long ; the 
wrinkles are now less deep than before. 

The larva fed well with me on flowers of Picris 
Meracioides, Crepis virens, and Apargia autumnalis, up 
to the 11th of November, and got fat. It then by 
degrees contracted a little in its length and grossness, 
and at night on the 13th spun itself up in a bit of 
moss on some earth in a pot. 

The moth, a female, emerged in the evening of the 
14th of December, the pupa having been kept on the 
mantel-shelf, and a piece of blotting-paper moistened 
daily to prevent its being dried up. 

The pupa skin was nearly three-eighths of an inch in 
length, and of the usual figure, with a small rounded 
anal projection furnished with four fine curly-topped 
bristles, two of them shorter than the others; the 
colour light chestnut brown, with dark brown aual 
tips, the surface rather shining. 

The attitude of the larva when feeding was extended 
nearly straight along a stem ; at other times the back 
was arched, with only the first four segments extended, 
its hold sustained with the prolegs only, or if at all 
alarmed the front segments are bent down under the 
belly in a coil. (William Buckler, December 15th, 
1880 ; Note Book III, 242, 253.) 

This extremely local species has not hitherto been 
recorded as bred in England. The following notes will 
be of interest. 

The eggs are not apparently attached to the food, 
but dropped loosely amongst it. They hatch in a few 
days, about the first week in August. Having no in- 
formation as to food-plant, a general selection of the 
most probable was made, and placed in a wide-mouthed 
bottle for their choice. For the first week, so little 
sign was there of any feeding that I feared I had lost 
them. After two or three weeks, although they made 
very little progress, still they were alive, and must 
have eaten something. Generally most of the little 
larvae were on or near Galium verum flowers, one of 



ACIDALIA OCHRATA. 85 

the plants supplied. Still, being so small, the frass 
was hardly perceptible ; as time went on it became 
more apparent that they ate only, or, at any rate 
principally, the withered flowers of the Galium. 
During the month of August, as long as this plant 
could be obtained in bloom, it was continued as food ; 
when this could no longer be obtained I had to seek 
some other food, and early in September I tried flowers 
of golden-rod. The larvse took to this readily enough, 
although evidently not a natural food, as the golden- 
rod did not grow in the district where the moths were 
taken. I simply tried it because I had it growing in 
my garden. My stock of this plant failing, Mr. W. H. 
Grigg, of Bristol, kindly sent me a weekly supply of 
it by post until the middle of October, when flowers 
could no longer be obtained. By this time about ten 
of the larvae had fed up much in advance of the rest of 
the brood, and almost gave me hope that, provided I 
could get them food, they might be induced to feed up 
this year. I pondered as to what food I could procure, 
when Grepis virens suggested itself to me, from the 
fact of recollecting that a species of Grepis was very 
plentiful in their habitat. Grepis virens being a late 
flowering plant and common on Blackheath, there was 
not much difficulty in getting flowers of it to try, and 
it proved a complete success. Some of these flowers 
were placed in a glass cylinder, with a few broken 
pieces of flower-pot, light soil, and moss, which were 
kept moist, but not wet, having a free drainage. The 
cylinder was kept in a warm room, and the ten forward 
larvse now fed up rapidly, and by the 1st November 
the first one had spun up. I immediately dispatched 
one of the largest to Mr. Buckler, who has secured 
three drawings of this long-desired species. I may 
mention that at first I had tried the coast Grepis, but 
then only the leaves. They did not apparently care 
for them at all, or, in fact, for foliage of any kind. 
Flowers when withered appeared to be most to their 
taste. 



86 ACIDALIA OCHEATA. 

The full-fed larva may be briefly described, being 
almost without ornamentation and of an almost uniform 
warm stone-colour. It is about three-quarters of an 
inch long, moderately stout for an Acidalia, slightly 
thickest in the middle, and tapering gradually to the 
head, which is rather flat and small. The dorsal and 
subdorsal lines are obscurely indicated. When viewed 
through a glass of low power the dorsal line is seen to 
be composed of two fine parallel lines of faint grey ; 
the subdorsal lines by a broken and indistinct row of 
grey dots, most distinct on the tenth, eleventh, and 
twelfth segments. The whole dorsal area is seen to 
be a series of fine transverse wrinkles, which with a 
higher power appear very like the ridges of corduroy, 
such as is used for workmen's trousers. The spira- 
cular line is closely marked by a produced and wrinkled 
skin-fold, which towards the head appears almost 
fringed, and to which portions of the yellow petals, or 
rather florets, often adhere. The abdomen and 
claspers are of the same uniform stone- colour, with a 
faint indication of a double row of dark spots, two or 
four on each segment. 

The larva spins a few coarse threads of silk, drawing 
together portions of food-plant or moss into an open- 
work cocoon, through which can readily be seen the 
light brown chrysalis. 

Naturally these larvaB would hybernate, which the 
rest of my brood are now doing. (W. H. Tug well, 
November 13th, 1880; But., December, 1880, XIII, 
306.) 



Acidalia rubeioata. 

PL OXVII, fig. 1. 

On the 28th of July, 1864, Mr. F. Bond took nine 
specimens of Acidalia rubricata and obtained some 
eggs, which he kindly sent to me. 



ACIDALIA RUBRIC ATA. 87 

The larvse were hatched on the 6th of August, and 
chose for their food Polygonum avicidare, Lotus corni- 
culatus, Medicago lupulina, and Trifolium minus. 

M. Carl Plotz, whose drawings of Geometrse and 
their larvae are referred to by Mr. Crewe in the 
Entomologist's Annual for 1865, had figured A. 
rubricata as feeding on Thymus serpyllum, but I 
could not discover that my larva? showed any liking 
for that plant. They continued feeding till some 
time in October, and had attained a length of rather 
more than a third of an inch before hybernation. 
About this time I discovered amongst them a very 
tiny larva of Boarmia rhomb oidaria, which I believe 
must have been produced from an egg laid upon one 
of the food-plants before it had been potted for the 
use of A. rubricata. I fancy it must have been on the 
Lotus corniculatus : but whether this intruder in any 
way injured his fellow-prisoners I cannot tell (if he 
did, he met with a comical punishment afterwards ; a 
larva of Zygaena trifolii took possession of him as he 
was stretched out stifle between two stems of the 
trefoil, and actually spun its cocoon upon his back !) ; 
however, during the latter part of October and the 
month of November, from some cause or other, I lost 
six out of nine larva? which I had hoped to rear. The 
remaining three I nursed very carefully, on fine days 
exposing them in their glass cylinder to the sun and 
air, and on stormy days and every night putting them 
under shelter. They began to feed again some time 
in March, from that time showing a decided prefer- 
ence for Polygonum' aviculare.. They changed skin for 
the last time about the end of April, and spun up 
during the latter part of May and beginning of June., 
On the 29th of June a very perfect specimen emerged 
of the " bright purple " variety of the moth, puzzling 
me until I learned that the " dull brownish-red " of 
the Manual is not the constant uniform of A. rubri- 
cata. I can compare the colour of this specimen to 
nothing so well as to the beautiful tint on the hind 



88 ACIDALIA BUBRICATA. 

margin of the fore- wings of Chcerocampa elpenor, only 
it is brighter. 

The larva when full-fed is not quite an inch in 
length ; in shape rather slender, tapering towards the 
head ; the head itself is notched, having the lobes 
rounded and swelling out wider than the second 
segment ; the whole body is ribbed with transverse 
rings. The ground colour is grey or ochreous on the 
back, paler on the belly. The dorsal line is composed 
of two very fine dusky threads ; there is a thicker and 
darker subdorsal line, commencing on each lobe of 
the head, and vanishing again after the fourth seg- 
ment, and as far as this extends there is between it 
and the dorsal line a pale grey stripe ; on the next 
five segments both these subdorsal lines reappear only 
as light or black spots at the segmental divisions, 
while on the back of the same segments there are five 
elongated dusky lozenges faintly edged with black ; 
the remaining segments are paler both in ground 
colour and in distinctness of lines. The spiracles are 
black, placed in a drab longitudinal ridge, which is 
bordered above by a fine black line, and below by a 
wider one. 

All the dark lines and marks become much fainter 
as the larva approaches its final change. 

The pupa is apparently placed in a slight cocoon 
under moss ; but, as I am hoping to get out another 
moth, I have not disturbed the cage to describe it. 

The larva is very similar in figure, tints, and habits 
to many others of the same genus (twisting itself 
when disturbed into almost a double coil) ; but the 
eye at once catches, as the chief point of distinction, 
the shape and colour of the head. (John Hellins, 
13th July, 1865 ; E.M.M., August, 1865, II, 66.) 

On the 13th of August, 1870, I received, through 
the kindness of the Rev. John Hellins, a young larva 
of this species. It fed on Polygonum aviculare, grow- 
ing slowly until the early part of October, when it 



ACIDALIA EUBRTCATA. 89 

began to hybernate. On the 15th of that month I 
took a description as follows : 

Length nearly half an inch, slender, but of average 
Acidalia proportions ; head larger than the second 
segment, notched on the crown ; body cylindrical, and 
of nearly uniform width, but slightly thickening pos- 
teriorly; segmental divisions distinct, each finely 
ribbed transversely, which gives the skin a rather 
rough appearance, being also rough to the touch ; 
general colour greyish brown ; head grey, marked 
with smoke-colour ; medio-dorsal line indistinct to the 
tenth segment, faint rust-colour ; on the remaining 
posterior segments broad and distinct, dull black. 
When seen through a lens, however, the faint rust- 
coloured dorsal line seems to run very narrowly 
through the broad black of the posterior segments ; 
on each of the other segments the black appears in 
the shape of two short parallel black marks, one on 
each side the dorsal line ; there are no perceptible 
subdorsal lines ; spiracular lines puckered, lighter than 
the ground colour ; ground colour of the belly similar 
to the dorsal surface ; it is bordered on each side by 
a conspicuous, dark smoky, subspiracular line. 

When at rest the food-plant is grasped by the 
claspers, and the body bent in a curved position, more 
so than in any other Acidalia larva I have noticed. 
In this position my larva remained a great part of the 
winter, but the very severe weather we had appeared 
to have been too much for it, as I found it dead on 
examining my hybernating larvse in the early part of 
February. 

What its food is in a natural state I believe is as yet 
unknown. (George T. Porritt, 3rd March, 1871 ; 
Ent., April, 1871, V, 275.) 



90 ACIDALIA SCUTULATA. 

ACIDALIA SCUTULATA. 

PL CXVII, fig. 2. 

Eggs laid July 12th, 1867 ; larvse hatched on the 
17th ; ate withered dandelion, and in the spring 
seemed very fond of a mouldy slice of turnip, which 
had been put into their flower-pot to catch an in- 
truding slug ; spun up during May and June ; moths 
out June 8th to July 2nd. 

The egg of A. scutulata is rather longer in shape 
(than that of A. holosericeata), one end flattened, the 
other more conical, covered with minute pits or de- 
pressions ; colour whitish, mottled with brownish-pink. 

The larva, though still belonging to the stiffer type 
of Acidalia larvse, is yet an advance toward the other, 
being more slender and elongated in form, than that 
of A. holosericeata, while still retaining the spiracular 
ridge, the great rugosity of skin, and the taper- 
ing to the head. When full-grown, about three- 
quarters of an inch long; slender, flattened, front 
segments more rounded, head notched and move- 
able ; the front and hinder segments very short, so 
that the legs appear as if placed close together at 
either extremity. In repose it keeps the front seg- 
ments bent down, but the head and neck turned up 
again, in an uncomfortable-looking attitude, suggestive 
of a "crick" in the neck. Colour pale ochreous, a 
brown double dorsal line showing strong on the head, 
faint on the front segments, confluent and strongly 
marked behind ; a brown subdorsal line very plain 
and strong on the head to the fourth segment, then 
almost lost till it becomes strongly marked again on 
the hinder segments, but its place is marked at the 
segmental folds by a pair of dots ; on segments five to 
nine pale brown oblique dashes reaching from the 
dorsal to below the subdorsal line ; the spiracles black, 
placed on a whitish ridge ; belly darker than the back, 



ACIDALIA SCUTULATA. 91 

being suffused with blackish, some darker dashes 
under the spiracles, and a darker irregular central line. 
These larvse formed compact little cocoons in the 
sand, and one bit up a piece of paper, and made itself 
a very neat little envelope. (J. Hellins, July, 1868 ; 
E.M.M., September, 1868, V, 95.) 

ACIDALIA BISETATA. 

PI. OX VII, fig. 3. 

Eggs sent me by Mr. Doubleday on the 26th July, 
1867 ; larvse hatched on the 30th ; fed on Polygonum 
aviculare and withered bramble leaves ; spun up in 
May ; moths out June 20th to 25th, 1868. 

The egg of A. bisetata is obtusely oval in outline, 
not quite cylindrical, but rather depressed ; irregularly 
covered with fine shallow reticulation ; colour salmon- 
pink, with large spots of deeper tint. 

Putting A. imitaria in its place as the lengthiest of 
the Acidalia larva3, and A. rusticata as the stumpiest, 
A. bisetata seems to occupy a middle station, and, as 
far as I have seen, to form the connecting link between 
the two forms ; being more slender and of more 
uniform bulk than the short larvse, and more rugose 
than the long ones. 

When full-grown, length about three-quarters of an 
inch, in form slightly flattened, slender, tapering very 
gently towards the head, which is notched, and scarcely 
smaller than the second segment; skin rugose ; bristles 
slightly clubbed ; position in repose something like 
that of A. scutulata. The colour is variable ; I think 
I have seen three good varieties. 

Var. 1. — Ground colour dingy drab, warmer on 
the back, and duller below ; the six segmental folds 
between four and ten showing as broad blackish- 
brown bands round the body, and shaped on the back by 
some dark oblique dashes, which reach to the spiracles, 
into a sort of broad, clumsy A> pointing forward ; there 
is a double dark brown dorsal line to be traced where 



92 ACIDALIA BISETATA. 

the ground in the middle of each segment allows it to 
be seen. 

Var. 2. — This variety was so dark on the back 
that the segmental folds were no darker than the 
ground, but the space between the double dorsal 
lines was distinctly paler throughout, and the oblique 
dashes, which in the first variety outlined the As, 
could still be traced. 

Var. 3. — A pale variety sent to Mr. Buckler by 
Mr. Gr. T. Porritt, of Huddersfield. Ground colour 
pale ochreous ; the broad bands wanting ; the double 
dorsal Hue very fine, most distinct at the folds, the 
subdorsal line and the oblique dashes fine also, all 
brown in colour ; under the spiracles a clouded irre- 
gular blackish stripe, shading off to the pale grey of 
the centre of the belly, with some oblique dashes. 

The pupa, as in the other species, just under the 
surface of the fine loose soil. (John Hellins, July, 
1868; E.M.M., September, 1868, V, 95.) 



ACIDALIA TRIGEMINATA. 

PL CXVII, fig. 4. 

I am very much indebted for young larvae of this 
species to the kindness of Mr. J. R. Wellman, who 
captured the parent moth on the 18th of June, 1870. 
The eggs, Mr. Wellman informs me, were, as well as 
he can remember, of a pale pinkish colour, and much 
like those of Acidalia rusticata ; they were laid loose 
in a box, and hatched in about ten days. 

The young larvae were supplied at first with a 
variety of food, including maple, birch, and knotgrass. 
In their infancy they appeared to feed on the two first- 
named ; but when nearly half-grown they fed entirely 
on Polygonum aviculare, and on this plant I had the 
pleasure to make their acquaintance on the 28th of 
June, and continued to feed them with the same up to 
their pupation, which occurred July 22nd to 24th. 



AC1DALIA TMGEMINATA. 93 

One moth, a male, appeared on the 14th of August, 
the others remaining over the autumn and winter. 
Mr. Wellman, more fortunate, bred upwards of a 
dozen specimens between the 3rd and 16th August. 

The fall-grown larva is about three-quarters of an 
inch in length, and although its shape is really more 
cylindrical than flattened, the puffed spiracular region 
gives the appearance of a rather flattened form ; its 
breadth is greatest at the ninth segment, from which it 
tapers by degrees both behind to the anal tip and in 
front towards the head, which is the smallest segment ; 
it is very rugose, each segment being subdivided into 
twelve portions by deep wrinkles ; the segmental divi- 
sions deeply cut, and much less in diameter than the 
segments themselves. 

Its colour is a dingy deep brown, relieved along 
the spiracular ridge by an almost continuous streak of 
dirty pale ochreous, interrupted at the segmental 
divisions. On the back, as far as the beginning of the 
. tenth segment, is a very faint pale dorsal line, chiefly 
visible before and behind each segmental division, 
where it is palest, and set off by being bordered by 
thick black strokes ; from these, two blackish streaks 
diverge obliquely towards the subdorsal region, forming 
a kind of A mark pointing forwards on the anterior of 
the segment, the middle part of which is much suffused 
with dark brown ; the subdorsal line is also blackish 
but not continuous, being interrupted twice on each 
segment ; on the tenth segment there is a central, 
somewhat star-shaped, whitish spot, and the remaining 
posterior segments are brown without any definite 
markings. The ventral surface is dark brown, and 
contrasts strongly with the pale spiracular ridge; 
the head is shining brown. The larva of this species 
is further distinguished from those of its congeners 
by having, from each of its wart-like tubercles, a 
rather long dirty ochreous bristle, curved forwards on 
all the segments as far as the tenth, but curved back- 
wards on the other three ; these bristles have the 



94 ACIDALIA TRIGEMINATA. 

extremity as thick as the base, and greatly resemble 
those on some species of Caradrina. 

It is a very timid larva, contracting itself at the least 
alarm, and remaining a very long time afterwards 
without movement. Its usual position in repose is 
a close coil, with its head twisted round on one side 
over the back of the tenth segment. (William Buckler, 
November 26th, 1870; E.M.M., June, 1871, VIII, 22.) 



ACIDALIA CONTIGQARTA. 

Plate OX VII, fig. 5. 

Through the kindness of Messrs. Greening and Bond, 
Mr. Buckler and myself have had the pleasure of 
rearing the larva of this species this season. 

The larva after hybernation, at the beginning of 
April, was about half an inch in length ; and at that 
time, although rugose, and presenting a most decided 
' wave '-like appearance, was not at all so plainly marked 
as it afterwards became. The ground colour was a 
warm ochreous-brown above, and a dark chocolate- 
brown beneath ; and on the middle segments was a 
row of elongated diamond-shaped markings, slightly 
darker than the ground colour, with the four usual 
dots on each segment blackish ; along the spiracular 
region the dark and light shades of brown met in a 
sort of zigzag line. 

About the 20th of April the larva moulted for the 
last time, and after that continued to feed for about 
four weeks. 

When full-fed it was about three-quarters of an inch 
in length, belonging to the shorter and thicker type of 
Acidalia larvse, rather flattened below, slightly tapering 
from tail to head, rugose; the head small and bifid. 
The back of a buff-brown, brighter on the head and 
three following segments ; a dark subdorsal (but no 
dorsal) line on these same segments ; at the fifth 
segment the subdorsal line ceases, and the dorsal row 



ACIDALIA C0NT1GUARIA. 95 

of dark brown elongated diamonds begins ; this con- 
tracts to a double dorsal line, but is much darker, on 
the hinder segments ; the usual dots black, emitting 
bristles ; the spiracular region puffed and puckered, 
bordered below with a broad irregular stripe of dark 
brown; the centre of the belly of an ochreous-brown. 

When disturbed the larva draws back the front 
segments, but I did not see it twist into a coil. 

Understanding that the food must be Empetrum 
nigrum, we troubled our friends to send us a supply of 
this plant out of Yorkshire, and then soon found that 
ling, whitethorn buds, and Polygonum aviculare were 
just as acceptable ! The two moths emerged on the 
27th June and the 5th July. (John Hellius, July 12th, 
1866; E.M.M., August, 1866,111, 69.) 



Acid alia eustioata. 

Plate CXVII, fig. 6. 

.. Whilst rearing this species from larvas kindly sent 
by Mr. T. Eedle, Mr. Buckler and I have made a few 
notes, for which I venture to think the descriptions of 
Mr. Newman and M. Milliere have still left room. 

We received the larvse in September, 1865, then 
about half -grown, and feeding on tender leaves of ivy 
and lilac ; but after hybernation we found that having 
by chance got hold of some withered bramble leaves, 
they preferred them to any other food. They spun np 
about the beginning of June, 1866, and the perfect 
insects appeared from the 8th to the 20th July. 

M. Milliere speaks of this species as donble-brooded, 
and describes the larva of the summer brood, which 
feeds up quickly ; but in England it seems there can be 
but one brood, for there would not be time for another 
between the middle of July and the beginning of 
September — when we received our larvae. 

I do not know whether there is more than one form 



96 ACID ALIA RUSTICATA. 

of the larva, but in neither of the above-mentioned 
descriptions is there any mention made of the row of 
five dorsal markings which, in our specimens, were 
very conspicuous. 

The ground colour was a dingy brown, paler on the 
ninth segment, the dorsal and subdorsal lines paler 
than the ground ; on each segment from the fifth to 
the ninth (both inclusive) is an oblong space paler than 
the ground, shaped somewhat like an acorn, the tip of 
which is formed by a very pale spot behind ; these 
acorns are partially enclosed (at the beginning and end 
of each segment, that is) by blackish marks like Vs, 
only with the arms curved to suit the outline. There 
are also some much shorter curved lateral marks 
crossing the segmental folds just below the subdorsal 
line ; and there is a pale ochreous plate on the second 
segment. 

The great rugosity of the skin, and its curious short 
clubbed bristles, have been described before. (John 
Hellins, January 28th, 1867; E.M.M., April, 1867, 
III, 259.) 

The larva of this species rests in a bent position, 
its claspers attached to its food-plant, and its anterior 
extremity raised ; the head is slightly narrower than 
the second segment, and is partially received therein ; 
it is divided, but not deeply, on the crown ; it is 
beset with numerous linear fleshy processes, which 
have the appearance of elongated warts ; the body 
gradually increases in width after the head ; it is much 
dilated on the sides, and has two indistinct ridges on 
the back ; the incisions of the segments are well 
marked, and each segment is obviously divided into 
six sections by transverse furrows, besides the manifest 
skin-fold which intervenes between the segments ; the 
sections are composed of wart-like projections, which 
give a rough and scabrous appearance to the entire 
body ; in addition to which it is beset with many clavate 
processes, which might be compared to the glandular 
hairs frequently occurring in plants ; the extremity of 



ACIDALIA BUSTICATA. 



97 



these processes is flattened after the fashion of the 
antennae of butterflies. 

The colour of the head is black, the processes being 
dirty white ; the body is dingy putty-coloured, freckled 
with smoky black; the ventral is slightly paler than 
the dorsal surface. 

I am indebted to Mr. J. R. Wellman for a liberal 
supply of this most interesting larva. I am unable to 
state what is its natural food-plant, but, like so many 
of its kindred, it feeds freely in confinement on Poly- 
gonum aviculare (the common knotgrass). (Edward 
Newman, 1870 ; Ent., October, 1870, V, 176.) 



ACIDALIA OSSEATA. 

PI. CXVII, fig. 7. 

At the time Mr. Alfred E. Hudd, of Bristol, sent 
me the eggs of A. incanaria (Ent., January, 1878, 
xi, 18), he also forwarded a few of A. interjectaria 
[osseata of Stain ton's Manual]. They were globular in 
shape, and of a pale salmon -colour. 

On the 3rd of August the young larvae emerged, 
and were dark purplish- brown ; the head black. 
Until autumn they fed on Polygonum avictdare, but 
after hybernation on withered dandelion leaves, etc. 
Only one reached maturity, and it I described on 
April 18th as follows : 

Length nearly half an inch, stout, and rather 
stumpy in appearance ; the head has the face flat, 
and is distinctly notched on the crown ; it is rather 
narrower than the second segment. The body has a 
more uniform appearance than many of the species 
in the genus, but, like its congeners, the segments 
gradually widen from the second to the ninth ; the 
next three are of nearly uniform width, but narrower 
than the ninth, and the thirteenth is still narrower. 
Like all others of the genus I have seen the segments 
overlap each other, rendering the divisions distinct, 

vol. vir. 7 



98 AOTDALIA OSSEATA. 

and each segment is also transversely ribbed, and is 
clothed with very few, scattered, short, bristly hairs. 
Ground colour a dirty, dull, smoky brown, marbled 
and variegated with ochreous-yellow, the darker 
colour predominating on the front segments, the 
ochreous on the ninth to thirteenth segments. The 
head is also of these two colours, in about equal pro- 
portion. Dorsal line ochreous, deeply edged with 
smoke-colour ; there is a distinct white spot on the 
posterior part of the sixth, seventh, and eighth seg- 
ments. There are no perceptible subdorsal lines, but 
a conspicuous ochreous line extends through the 
region of the spiracles. The ventral surface is of the 
same dull, dark, smoky brown as the dorsal area, but 
has a very pretty series of large, ochreous, crescentic 
marks throughout its entire length, and there is a 
very faint indication of a pale central line ; the hairs 
are black. 

This larva spun a slight cocoon of loose threads, 
and the imago, a fine female specimen, emerged 
August 4th. (George T. Porritt, February 6th, 1878 ; 
But., April, 1878, XT, 91.) 

Eggs of A. inter j ectaria (as we must now call what 
used to pass in this locality for A. osseata) were 
obtained here (Exeter) on July 12th, 1867; others 
were sent me by Mr. Brown, of Cambridge, on the 
17th July. 

The larvas hatched on the 24th and 26th ; fed on 
dandelion and scarlet pimpernel, preferring withered 
leaves, and indeed would eat almost anything withered ; 
spun up in May, 1868, and the moths appeared June 
24th to 29th. 

The egg of A. inter jectaria is flattened at either 
end, but not so decidedly (as in A. holosericeata) , the 
reticulation finer, the colour pinkish. 

The larva of A. inter jectaria is also one of the short 
stiff larvae, in figure much like A. holosericeata. When 
full-grown its length is about half an inch ; tapering 
towards the head, which is small, notched, and move- 



AOIDALIA OSSEATA. 99 

able ; skin very rugose, and ridged with warts not quite 
so prominent as those of A. holosericeata; bristles slightly 
clubbed. Colour a brownish-grey, hinder segments 
paler; a pale dorsal line with dark edges interrupted 
at the four middle folds by a whitish dot, behind 
which comes a black X, the arms of which reach 
beyond the dorsal ridges of warts ; the spiracular 
ridge is paler than the ground, and below it are some 
oblique blackish dashes. 

Pupa in a cocoon just below the surface of the fine 
soil. (John Hellins, July, 1868 ; E.M.M., September, 
1868, V, 96.) 



ACIDALIA HOLOSERICEATA. 

PL CXY1II, fig. 1. 

To Mr. A. E. Hudd, of Clifton, Bristol, I am in- 
debted for the opportunity of watching the earlier 
stages of another Acidalia, viz. A. holosericeata, and 
his kindness is the more thankworthy in that he 
supplied me with eggs three years in succession, until 
I could succeed in breeding the moths. Whilst en- 
gaged with this species I took in hand some others, 
A. bisetata, A. scutulata, and A. inter j ectaria (as we 
must now call what used to pass in this locality for 
A. osseata), and made notes of their various stages, 
also A. imitaria and A. immutata; but having described 
these before, I now go no further with them than 
the egg. 

I confess I am not satisfied with what I have done 
about the eggs. More careful labour with the micro- 
scope than is in my power to bestow is needed to 
make good work here ; I should like the micrometer 
to be brought into use for the more accurate com- 
parison of dimensions, and a good equipment of 
condensers and reflectors will be required to make 
quite sure of the colouring and markings of the 
surface; and, after all, I fancy it will be found that 



100 ACIDAL1A HOLOSERICEATA. 

while certain genera — Ennomos and Acidalia, for 
example — furnish interesting studies in this stage, 
there are others in which the allied species cannot be 
safely distinguished in the egg. 

The eggs of A. holosericeata reached me on the 17th 
of July, 1867 ; the larvae hatched on the 25th. They 
fed on the rock-rose, Helianthemum vulgare, and their 
habit was to congregate three or four together near 
the bottom of a shoot, strip it for some distance of its 
bark or skin, and then feed on the withered leaves at 
the tip of the shoot as it hung down ; but of course I 
cannot say whether in nature they are to be found 
singly or in company. They ceased feeding during the 
winter, and were at all times very sluggish and quiet 
in their habits. They moulted for the last time about 
the end of March, spun up during May, and the moths 
appeared June 20th to 29tb, 1868. 

The egg of A. holosericeata is almost barrel-shaped, 
and perhaps more evenly flattened at the ends than 
any other of the Acidalise ; it is covered with a coarser 
reticulation than A. interjectaria, and in colour is de- 
cidedly yellow. 

The larva of A. holosericeata belongs to the shorter 
type of Acidalia, and is perhaps the plainest in dress 
of all this very plain family. When full-grown the 
length is a little over half an inch, in figure tapering 
considerably towards the head, which is small and 
notched, tucked under when at rest, thrown forward 
when in motion ; skin most wonderfully wrinkled and 
warted, the warts being on the wrinkles, and so 
arranged that they form on the back a double ridge on 
each segment, which contracts to a single median 
ridge at each fold, and another more prominent ridge 
at the spiracles ; the segmental divisions very de- 
cidedly cleft ; bristles short and clubbed ; the larva 
feels very stiff and firm ; when disturbed it curls in 
the front segments in the same plane with the rest of 
the body, and not on one side, as the longer Acidalise 
do. In colour it varies little throughout its growth, 



ACIDALIA HOLOSEEICEATA. 101 

being generally a very muddy reddish-brown, but 
just after moulting almost black, the markings few 
and indistinct; the hinder segments are somewhat 
paler than the rest of the body ; the segmental folds 
are darker ; there is a paler dorsal line edged with 
black threads, which show most distinctly on the hind 
segments ; and the dorsal ridges are paler than the 
ground. 

When full-fed the larvse retired into some sandy 
soil to undergo their pupation. (John Hellins, July, 
1868 ; E.M.M., September, 1868, V, 95.) 



ACIDALIA VIRGULAftlA. 

PI. CXVIII, fig. 2. 

I am indebted to Mr. J. E. Fletcher, of Worcester, for 
the opportunity of renewing my acquaintance with the 
larva of A. incanaria [virgularia of Stainton's Manual]. 
Some eggs kindly sent byhim,looseinaquill,on the 26th 
of July, 1872, hatched on the 2nd of August following. 

The young larvas fed from the first on Polygonum 
aviculare, thriving so fast that one had changed to a 
pupa by the 31st of August, several others by the 5th 
of September, and more by the 14th ; the remainder 
being attacked and killed by mildew when approaching 
pupation. The first moth appeared on the 14th of 
September, the others between the 26th of that month 
and the 3rd of October. 

The egg is of a rather long oval shape, a little de- 
pressed on part of its surface, with the shell very 
finely reticulated, and of a deep flesh-colour, turning 
to brown two days before hatching. 

The young larvas at first, and for some time, were 
of a pale ashy grey tint above, and darker grey 
beneath; resting often with their front segments 
curled under; at the end of a fortnight they were 
sufficiently grown to show their distinctive characters 
very well ; at the end of another week varieties in 



102 ACIDALIA VIRGULARIA. 

their colouring began to appear, and from this time, 
they were generally in straight postures on their food- 
plant, and even when disturbed from it they remained 
rigid, as if feigning death. 

When full-grown the larva is nearly three-quarters 
of an inch in length ; though convex both above and 
below, yet its shape appears a little flattened ; the 
broadest segment is the ninth, from which those in 
front taper very slightly towards the head, which is 
the smallest segment, and is indented on the crown ; 
the last four segments are also very little tapered until 
near the anal tip ; all along the sides the inflated 
spiracular ridge is interrupted at each segmental divi- 
sion, and there are four subdividing wrinkles at unequal 
distances on the back, and twelve at equal distances on 
the belly, of each segment. 

The ground colour, according to the individual, is 
either brownish-grey or reddish or ochreous brown ; 
the head, dark in the centre, is brown, and freckled 
with darker at the sides ; the subdorsal line begins a 
little below the crown of each lobe, and continues very 
distinct to the end of the fifth segment, the dorsal 
line beginning on the second segment, and continuing 
distinct for the same distance, both being pale ashy 
or ochreous in colour; from thence to the tenth seg- 
ment both dorsal and subdorsal lines generally become 
so suffused in their course as to be but partially visible, 
and in some instances hardly to be traced through 
the brown bands which cross each of those segments, 
namely, a narrow band in front and a broad one 
on the hinder part, leaving between them but a small 
space of the ground colour ; on the last four segments, 
however, the lines are more distinct. At the end of 
the fifth segment on either side is a conspicuous 
round black spot near the subdorsal region, followed 
in some instances by another, a trifle smaller, on the 
end of the sixth. In segments five to nine inclusive 
the back of each bears the following details, composed 
chiefly of brown freckles, more or less confluent, viz. ; 



ACIDALIA VIRGULARIA. 103 

on the dorsal region in front of each two simple leaf- 
like shapes of darkish brown, pointing backwards, 
united at their base but diverging near their tips, 
which end at the anterior pair of tubercular black 
dots ; on the hinder part of each of these segments 
are equally wide dorsal shapes of brown, merged 
together at their base, but soon separating into Vs 
with double side strokes, the outer stroke of each pair 
being longer than the inner and reaching to the side, 
the central space between the inner strokes mostly 
filled up with the same brown colour until near the 
anterior pair of dots, where it fades away ; the poste- 
rior pair of black dots just within the outer strokes, 
and not far from the segmental division. Instances 
occur where these outer oblique dark strokes are 
margined a little way on their course by pale ashy or 
ochreous. The ninth segment is paler than the others, 
and the tenth paler still ; and on the back of the three 
hinder segments the markings are very simple rudi- 
ments of the preceding details. The sides are through- 
out clouded and streaked with darkish brown, and on 
the thoracic portion a strong dark brown line borders 
the pale subdorsal below ; the spiracles are of the 
ground colour, ringed with darker brown. The belly 
of each segment is darkish grey-brown at the sides, 
with a paler ashy tinted pear-shape in the middle, out- 
lined with dark brown, and on the narrowest part of 
this pear-like outline is placed on each side a conspi- 
cuous blackish spot ; a whitish ashy stripe runs down 
the centre, widening at the end of each segment, and 
interruptedly outlined with blackish, most strongly 
at its widest part. 

The most noticeable variety among the larvae I had, 
was of a pale grey ground colour, in which the dorsal 
line could be distinctly traced throughout, though but 
little paler than the ground, and (as in many other 
species of Acidalia) was strongly bordered at the 
beginning of each segment with a short black mark 
(and this again, in one instance, with a white mark), 



104 ACIDALIA VIRGULARIA. 

these black marks becoming more and more developed 
towards the twelfth segment ; the dorsal markings 
down the back but thin and slight imitations of those 
described above, and none of them clouded or merged 
together ; the anterior pairs of tubercular dots black, 
and the hinder pairs white, finely ringed with black. 

The pupa is five-sixteenths of an inch in length, 
rather stout in proportion, broad at the thorax, the 
abdomen tapering rather suddenly to a point which 
terminates in six minute bristles, curved at their extre- 
mities ; its colour ochreous-brown, broadly marked 
with black on the thorax and back of the abdomen, the 
wing-covers being delicately striated with dark brown. 
(William Buckler, December, 1872; E.M.M., March, 
1873, IX, 246.) 

In July, 1875, I received from Mr. Alfred E. Hudd, 
of Clifton, near Bristol, the eggs of Acidalia incanaria. 
They were globular, and pale straw-colour. On the 
29th of the same month they hatched. The newly 
emerged larvae were slender, with the body dark green 
and the head brown. They fed on Polygonum aviculare 
until autumn, when they hybernated ; still feeding 
a little, however, on withered dandelion leaves on 
mild days all winter. The dandelion leaves had been 
supplied when the knotgrass failed, and was sub- 
sequently their food until their full growth. They 
were spinning up from the middle till towards the end 
of April. 

Length about three-quarters of an inch, and of 
average bulk in proportion. The head has the face flat- 
tened, and is notched on the crown. Body tolerably 
cylindrical, tapering from the ninth segment to the 
head, which is very small. The segments overlap each 
other, making the divisions distinct ; but there is not 
the marked difference between the width of the poste- 
rior and anterior of each segment which is charac- 
teristic of so many of the species in the genus Acidalia. 
Skin tolerably smooth, but with a tough appearance. 
The ground colour of the dorsal surface is stone-grey, 



ACIDALTA VIRGULARIA. 105 

with very faint pink tinge on the front and posterior 
segments. Head dirty, smoky brown, with pale stone- 
coloured streak on each lobe. The medio-dorsal line 
is pale grey, but very narrow and indistinct ; on the 
10th to 13th segments it is very broadly edged with 
smoke-colour ; on the other segments this smoke-colour 
takes the form of a very pretty, but almost indescrib- 
able pattern, having the appearance of a double series 
of V-shaped marks, or rather a V mark and an X mark, 
the posterior half of the X, however, being much 
narrower than the anterior, the V mark being within the 
anterior of the X mark. There are no other distinct 
markings, but the sides are much marbled with the 
dark smoke-colour. The ventral surface seems to 
have an underground of pinkish-grey, but is very 
strongly suffused throughout with pale blue ; the 
sides are thickly dotted and marked with smoky black. 
Extending the whole length is a series of large pear- 
shaped marks, one on each segment, and the narrow 
end of the pear-mark pointing towards the head ; these 
marks are of two colours, a broad central stripe being 
pale blue, the remainder pinkish, and on the marks is 
a conspicuous series of black Y-shaped marks ; spiracles 
imperceptible. 

When at rest the food-plant is grasped by the 
claspers, and the anterior segments coiled inwards, 
the head and legs being tucked closely together. 

The cocoons were formed of a few threads, drawn 
loosely together in the corners of their cage, or 
amongst withered leaves at the bottom. 

The pupa is about three-eighths of an inch long, has 
the thorax rounded, the eyes prominent, and the 
abdomen tapering sharply to a point. Ground colour 
dark ochreous-yellow, and the back of each segment 
neatly marked with four transverse dark brown spots ; 
eye- and wing-cases dull dark green ; tip of abdomen 
very dark brown. 

A beautiful and strongly-marked series (some almost 
black) of imagos emerged at the end of June or in 



106 ACIDALIA VIBGULARIA. 

July. (George T. Porritt, December 6th, 1877 
Ent., January, 1878, XI, 18.) 



ACIDALIA OIROELLATA. 

Plate CXYIII, fig. 3. 

On the 6th of August, 1865, Mr. Batty, of Sheffield, 
sent me some larvse of this species which had been 
hatched early in July. Two of them were nearly full- 
grown, but the rest more than half -grown ; the former 
spun up during the last week in August, and the 
moths appeared about the middle of September, 
whilst the latter have remained nearly stationary, 
scarcely eating anything since I received them. I am 
thus able to describe the larva at two stages of its 
growth. 

The smaller ones are of a dark brown all over except 
the back of the segments five to nine, which is occupied 
by a pale buff space ; down the middle of this space 
are four little dark insulated Xs, dividing it into five 
long diamonds, with a stripe of the pale colour on 
either side. 

When full-fed the larva is about three-quarters of 
an inch long, slender, tapering towards the head, and 
rather flattened; the head small and notched; the 
skin very rugose ; in attitude it is stiff, not curling in 
much when disturbed. The colour is pale grey, or 
yellowish-grey above, darker grey below ; the sub- 
dorsal line dark blackish-grey ; dorsal and spiracular 
lines very fine and whitish in colour; on the anterior 
segments up to the fifth the dorsal line is edged with 
fine blackish lines, but on segments six to nine the Xs 
of the younger stage reappear as pairs of blackish 
curved dashes, darkest just at the segmental folds, 
and lighter on the following segment ; and on the same 
segments these marks are followed by a pair of 
blackish dots and fainter dashes ; the ninth segment is 



ACIDALIA CIRCELLATA. 107 

the palest, and the hinder ones are much darker, all the 
lines being there strongly marked. 

The pupa is enclosed in a loose cocoon, formed by 
drawing together either earth or leaves with a few 
threads, and is slender in form, the tip of the tail 
ending very bluntly with three little horny warts ; the 
colour reddish-brown, the edges of the wing-cases 
brighter. 

The food supplied was Polygonum aviculare, and 
seemed to suit very well. 

It appears that the larvae of Acidalise, if they can 
meet with sufficient heat, and a supply of fresh tender 
food at the same time, will feed up so rapidly as to 
produce a second brood of moths in August or Sep- 
tember ; thus, this season (1865), I know A. ornata, 
A. mancuniata, and the species I have just described 
have been partially double-brooded ; but I am inclined 
to think that with most of the species the greater 
number of the larvae hybernate. (John Hellins ; Ent. 
Annual for 1866, p. 164.) 



ACIDALIA ORNATA. 

Plate CXVIII, fig. 4. 

I have more than once had eggs of this species, but 
never succeeded in rearing the larvae to full growth. 

On the 30th July last (1865) I received eggs from Mr. 
Wright, the larvae from which are at the time I write 
this still quite small, and not looking likely to come 
to perfection, although I took some trouble to procure 
for them plants of wild thyme, thinking it might suit 
them better than the garden sort. However, almost 
on the same day with Mr. Wright's eggs, I received 
from the Rev. J. Greene some larvm feeding on mint, 
which had even then (last July) nearly attained their 
full growth ; and from other larvae of the same brood, 
Mr. Greene, in the course of last autumn, bred the 
moths. My small hybernating larvae are about four 



108 ACIDALIA ORNATA. 

lines in length, very rugose, and very dark and dingy 
to look at ; but with a lens one can see that the back is 
brownish-ochreous, with a pale grey interrupted dorsal 
line, and five dusky As on the middle segments, with 
their apices pointing forward. When full-grown the 
larva is not quite an inch in length, rather slender, 
almost uniform in bulk throughout ; the head slightly 
notched, the skin rugose; the spiracular region puffed 
out and puckered. The ground colour of the back is 
brownish-ochreous ; the dorsal line fine and inter- 
rupted, darkest near the head, afterwards showing 
pale grey, edged with dusky ; subdorsal line dark 
brown, commencing very distinctly on the head. On 
each segment from the fifth to the ninth there are two 
obtuse dark Vs, one pointing forward, the other back- 
wards (their arms reaching nearly to the subdorsal line, 
and terminating in the usual four dots), and between 
them enclosing a blunt diamond of the ground colour, 
through the centre of which the dark-edged dorsal 
line shows distinctly. The posterior segments are 
marked only with the dorsal and subdorsal lines, and 
the usual four dots in each, here showing more dis- 
tinctlyas being not confounded with the othermarkings. 
The spiracuiar stripe pale ochreous, freckled and 
edged below with dusky; the body pale grey, freckled 
and mottled in the same way. 

Certainly mint seems to have suited the growth of 
these larvae better than thyme, but I perceive that 
after they have once tasted the latter they will not 
leave it for another food. (John Hellins, February 
7th, 1866 ; E.M.M., July, 1866, III, 44) 



ACIDALIA INCANATA. 

PI. CXVIII, fig. 5. 

On September 7th, 1875, I received half a dozen 
young larvse of A. jpromutata [jmcanata of Stainton's 
Manual] from Mr. J. Gr. Ross, of Bathampton, 



ACIDALIA INCANATA. 109 

near Bath. They fed on Polygonum aviculare until 
hybernation, which in their case extended over 
an unusually long period, as, in the spring fol- 
lowing, they did not recommence feeding until 
long after other hybernating species I had had 
begun to do so, although kept under precisely the 
same conditions. This, however, cannot be taken as 
the natural habit of the species, whatever may have 
been the cause in this case, as my larvae were conse- 
quently not full-grown until quite the end of June, or 
several weeks after the imagos ought to have been on 
the wing at large. 

Length nearly an inch and a half ; the head has the 
lobes rounded, and is of equal width with the second 
segment ; body slender, cylindrical, and of almost uni- 
form width throughout, tapering very slightly indeed 
toward the head ; segmental divisions tolerably well 
defined, but do not overlap each other in the marked 
way which characterises so many of the species in 
the genus ; skin distinctly but very evenly transversely 
ribbed. 

Ground colour of the dorsal surface and head a very 
pale slaty-olive ; a dull olive stripe extends throughout 
the centre of the dorsal area, and encloses within it a 
very fine interrupted pale medio-clorsal line ; this 
olive stripe, however, is much darker on the last three 
segments than on any of the others ; there is a pale 
yellowish, not very well defined, line along the sub- 
dorsal area, but there are no perceptible spiracular 
lines ; spiracles distinct, black. Ventral surface uni- 
formly of a pretty, very pale slaty-blue colour. 

The pupa is nearly half an inch long, smooth 
and polished, tolerably cylindrical, but attenuated 
towards the anal point; compared with the larva it 
is very stout. General colour of the dorsal surface 
pale brown ; head and segmental divisions chocolate- 
brown ; wing-cases yellowish-green ; the anal tip 
brown. 

The imagos began to emerge July 23rd. (George 



110 AOIDALIA JNOANATA. 

T. Porritt, April 10th, 1878 ; E.M.M., May, 1878, 
XIV, 279.) 

AOIDALIA MABGINEPUNOTATA. 

PI. OXVIII, fig. 6. 

One young larva of A. straminata [marginepunc- 
tata of Stainton's Manual], the survivor of two larvse 
reared from eggs, reached me October 1st, 1872, 
from Mr. J, R. Wellman, feeding on knotgrass. 
On the 4th he sent me three more, being all his 
stock, and the following particulars. The parent 
moth was captured in the New Forest in July, 1872, 
by a friend of Mr. Wellman' s, who forwarded hi mthe 
eggs laid in a cluster of about ten or eleven. When 
Mr. Wellman received them they were of a pink 
colour, and about the size of eggs of A, rusticata ; and 
before hatching they changed to a dark slaty-brown. 

By the 5th of October the larvse had attained the 
length of three-eighths of an inch. They were mode- 
rately slender, very slightly tapering forwards from 
the ninth segment, the head a trifle the smallest and 
indented on the top of the crown, full and rounded at 
the sides, the last five segments of about uniform 
bulk ; the upper and under surfaces are convex, with 
a spiracular inflated ridge along the sides tending to 
give rather a flattened look to the back. The seg- 
ments are decidedly rugose, with about twelve deep 
subdividing wrinkles on each. The bristles are very 
short and stumpy, rather numerous about the head 
and the anal extremity. 

The ground colour of the back is a pale grey, chiefly 
seen in an imperfectly elliptical, somewhat diamond 
shape on the fifth to the ninth segments inclusive ; 
this is defined by blackish ; a faint whitish-grey 
dorsal line appears only just at each end of this mark, 
which is strongly edged with black; on either side the 
grey becomes suffused with darker ; the subdorsal lines 
are black, with a fine whitish-grey line on each side 



AOIDALIA MARGINEPUNCTATA. Ill 

of it, but which appears only at each end of a segment. 
The ventral surface is entirely black. 

These larvse all died during the end of winter. 
(William Buckler, 1873 ; Note Book I, 205.) 

On the 30th of September, 1873, Mr. F. Bisshopp, 
then on the point of leaving Ipswich, kindly sent me 
a few larvas of Acidalia straminata feeding on knot- 
grass sparingly, and when after a time this food failed, 
they nibbled a little at tormentil and heather, but soon 
began to hybernate, and about the end of November 
one or two died, which induced me to make them over 
to the Rev. J. Hellins, knowing that if they could be 
kept alive during the winter and spring he would be 
successful ; and my belief was verified, for on the 5th 
of June, 1874, I received from him a larva in its last 
dress, and on the 14th another grown to the same size. 

These were about seven-eighths of an inch in length, 
slender in proportion, tapering gradually from the end 
of the ninth segment to the head, which is the smallest, 
and from the ninth to the anal extremity. On the 
back it is a trifle flattened, the spiracular inflated pro- 
jecting ridge helping this appearance; rounded on the 
ventral surface similar to that of the back, and rugose 
above and below ; segmental divisions well defined ; 
the head rounded at the sides and notched on the 
crown ; some very minute stumpy bristles rather nume- 
rous proceed from the head and second segment, as 
well as from their usual situations on the other parts 
of the body and ventral and anal legs. 

The colour of this larva is a pale ashy grey or 
pinkish grey, becoming on the eighth and ninth 
segments almost white, but a fine hair-like dorsal line 
is whitest faintly edged with blackish or grey. This 
pale portion on each segment beyond the fourth is 
somewhat of a pear or pegtop shape, the broad part 
behind and surrounded with grey, its apex defined 
by a blackish inverted V mark followed by the two 
anterior black dots ; the posterior dots also black, 
and a short open V mark at the end of the segment ; 



112 ACIDALIA MARGINEPUNCTATA. 

the black dots and Vs are strongest and most notice- 
able on the end of the fifth segment ; on the thoracic 
segments the markings are linear and darkish grey, 
as they also are on the last fonr ; the inflated ridge is 
very dark grey, freckled ; the belly suffused with a 
sooty blackness, excepting a narrow grey transverse 
band at each segmental division, the sides of the last 
four segments being a little paler, of a grey colour ; 
two black central or twin lines can be seen on the 
narrow grey transverse band. The colour of the head 
is dirty whitish, broadly marked with blackish down 
the front and side of each lobe. When full-grown 
(June 22nd) the ventral surface is black only beneath 
the inflated spiracular ridge, the rest being grey with 
two central undulating stripes followed on either side 
by another of blackish-grey. One of my two examples 
became quite white in ground colour on the back of 
the eighth, ninth, and front part of the tenth segments, 
the pale grey of the thoracic segments gradually 
becoming whiter, on the last three segments dark 
grey as before. The first ashy-grey larva retained its 
colouring in all respects until it retired for pupation 
on the 26th of June. 

The other larva on the 3rd of July spun some few 
silken threads amongst its food-plant, and remained to 
pupate there. 

The perfect insects appeared on the 27th July and 
5th August, 1874. (William Buckler, August, 1874; 
Note Book II, 74.) 

For the opportunity of studying the history of A. 
straminata, the larva of which, I believe, is hitherto 
undescribed, I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. 
G. B. Corbin, of Bingwood, who sent me eggs with 
the female moth on July 23rd, 1873. 

The eggs are rather large for the size of the moth, 
oblong-square with the corners rounded, in colour 
reddish-brown, — deposited loose; they hatched on 
the 29th of the same month, and the newly emerged 
larvae are long and slender, — in colour a very dark 



AOIDALIA MARGINEPUNCTATA. 113 

brown. They were fed on Polygonum avicularc, and 
grew slowly until autumn, when they hybernated, and 
recommenced feeding early in March of the year 1874. 
A great many of them died during winter and spring, 
and at the end of May I had only four left. These 
were nearly full-grown on the 18th of June, when I 
described them as follows : 

Length about an inch, and rather slender ; head 
rather narrower than the second segment, and deeply 
notched on the crown; the body is rounded beneath, 
but rather flattened above, not so conspicuously, how- 
ever, as in some other Acidalia larvse ; the 2nd, 3rd, 
and 4th segments are the narrowest, and are of about 
equal width ; from the fourth they gradually become 
wider until the 10th, which is the widest segment, is 
reached; the 11th, 12th, and 13th are of about equal 
width, but narrower than the 10th. The segments 
overlap each other, rendering the divisions distinct, 
and, as in other species of the genus, each segment is 
conspicuously ribbed transversely ; the skin has a tough 
appearance. 

The ground colour of the dorsal surface is pale 
slaty-grey ; the head is grey, with the sides and the 
notch dividing the lobes dark brown ; medio-dorsal 
line very narrow and pale, edged on each side in the 
centre of the 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th segments 
with a narrow black streak ; on the other segments 
the black edging is continuous, but narrower and 
much less distinct. On the middle segments, between 
the medio-dorsal and subdorsal lines, is another series 
of very black streaks, and these, being situated nearer 
the subdorsal region than the edging of the dorsal 
line, give the dorsal surface a very pretty variegated 
appearance. The subdorsal lines are of a very indis- 
tinct pale slate-colour ; the spiracular lines are scarcely 
perceptible even with a lens. The ventral surface is 
of a uniform pale slate-colour, with a very narrow 
indistinct paler central line, and equally indistinct 
transverse waved longitudinal lines. 

vol. vJT. 8 



114 ACIDALIA MAKGINEPUNCTATA. 

This description applies to the two more strongly 
marked larvae ; in the others the black markings on 
the dorsal surface were comparatively indistinct, in 
one showing only as paler confused marks. 

When nearly ready for spinning up, I had two of 
them preserved ; the others spun loose cocoons in a 
corner of the cage, and on the 21st July a ? imago 
emerged. (George T. Porritt, July 11th, 1874; 
E.M.M., October, 1874, XI, 116.) 



ACIDALIA SUBSERIOEATA. 

PL CXVIII, fig. 7. 

[The following description is given in a paper on 
the larvae of this species and A. mancuniata, for which 
see under that species.] 

On the 25th August, 1870, I described the larvas as 
follows : 

Acidalia subsericeata. — Length about three-quarters 
of an inch, tolerably stout posteriorly, but tapering 
considerably from the ninth to the second segment ; 
head small, nearly as broad as the second segment, and 
notched on the crown ; a division in the centre of the 
face renders the cheeks, which are rounded, prominent 
and distinct; body flattened when seen from above, 
but rounded on the ventral surface ; divisions of the 
sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth segments very con- 
spicuous, the anterior end of each being narrower than 
the posterior ; there are a few scattered but scarcely 
perceptible hairs, most conspicuous on the second 
segment, where they are pointed forwards ; skin ribbed 
transversely and rather tough; ground colour com- 
posed of several shades of brown and ochreous, the 
eighth and ninth segments being conspicuously of the 
latter colour, some specimens having a faint green 
tinge; head ochreous, surrounded with dark brown ; 
mouth and central divisions of the face black ; from the 
notch in the head extends the fine pale greyish dorsal 



AOIDALIA SUBSERICEATA. 115 

line, bordered on each side with an equally narrow 
dark line ; dorsally, on the anterior part of the ninth 
segment, is a conspicuous rust-coloured mark, shaped 
somewhat like an arrow-head, the apex pointed ante- 
riorly ; there are a number of confused brown markings 
along the spiracles, which are of a still darker brown ; 
usual segmental dots conspicuous, black ; the ground 
of the ventral surface is of a beautiful slate-colour, 
with a series of curiously-shaped dull black marks 
throughout its entire length, which give it a very 
pretty appearance. When at rest the food-plant is 
grasped by the claspers, the body stretched out at full 
length, the head being brought slightly forward, and 
tucked in amongst the legs. [For additional remarks 
and comparative notes see under next species, A. man- 
cwniata."] (George T. Porritt, November 4th, 1871 ; 
Ent., December, 1871, Y, 453.) 



AOIDALIA MANOUNIATA. 

PL CXVIII, fig. 8. 

The following comparative notes on the larvae of 
these species or varieties [A subsericeata and A. man- 
cuniata] may, perhaps, prove interesting. For the 
opportunity of comparing the two I am indebted to 
the kindness of the Hev. J. Hellins, of Exeter, who 
sent me the larvae in July, 1870. They fed on Poly- 
gonum aviculare, and on August 25th I described 
them as follows : 

A. subsericeata [see under that species]. 

A. mancuniata : — In habits and shape precisely like 
A. subsericeata, but perhaps a trifle more slender; 
ground colour dark brown, strongly tinged with choco- 
late, and without the ochreous markings so conspicuous 
on the eighth and ninth segments in A. subsericeata ; 
head marked as in that species, but duller in appear- 
ance ; dorsal line also similar to A. subsericeata, but the 
rust-like mark so conspicuous in that species is want- 



116 AOIDALIA MANCUNIATA. 

ing in A. mancuniata, but in one variety it is replaced 
(though in a different position) by two distinct white 
chalk-like marks ; ventral surf ace as in A. subsericeata. 
At the time 1 had my larvae, my friend Mr. J. P. 
Barrett, of Peckham, also reared a brood of A. subse- 
riceata, and as his notes differ slightly from my obser- 
vations, I append them. In a letter dated October 
25th, 1870, he says : — " I received a drawing of 
A. mancuniata from Mr. Doubleday this morning, and 
should like to know whether your notes agree with 
mine. The figure was taken by Mr. Buckler in 1865 
from Dr. Knaggs' larvae. I think it is of a darker 
brownish tinge in general than my A. subsericeata, and 
the black dots are more conspicuous. The last seg- 
ments are paler than the others, but appear to want the 
yellowish tinge that A. subsericeata possesses. In 
other respects I can see no difference either in size or 
shape." On receipt of this letter I forwarded my A. 
mancuniata larvae to Mr. Barrett for comparison with 
his A. subsericeata, and in a letter dated October 28th he 
says : " I am now quite satisfied that there is but very 
slight difference between the larvae of A. mancuniata 
and A. subsericeata ; I believe that you would scarcely 
be able to pick out the paler larva you sent if it were 
placed in a batch of A. subsericeata. The chocolate- 
brown one might readily be distinguished, but I should 
not be surprised if A. subsericeata varies similarly. 
You mention in your notes that the larvae of A. man- 
cuniata are, perhaps, more slender than A. subsericeata. 
I have noticed that in this respect my larvae varied 
considerably, but I am scarcely prepared to say, though 
I suspect such to be the case, that the more slender 
larvae produce the smaller insects, viz. the males. The 
figure before mentioned ,: (Mr. Buckler's) " is taken 
from a larva as stout as any I have had. The chief point 
of distinction that I have noted is the ochreous marking 
on the latter segments, and with respect to this it varies 
much in intensity. A batch of larvae that I had last 
year, belonging to A. subsericeata, scarcely possessed 



AOIDALIA MANCUNIATA. 117 

that marking, whilst those (or some of them) I had 
lately were very conspicuously blotched." Subse- 
quently, when in Huddersfield, Mr. Barrett saw my 
A. subsericeata larvae, and found they varied very much 
from those he had reared ; indeed, my A. mancuniata 
were more like bis A. subsericeata than were my larvae 
of that species. I offer no opinion as to the distinct- 
ness of the two species. (George T. Porritt, November 
4th, 1871; Ent., December, 1871, V, 453.) 

At the time that Mr. Hellins sent me two larvse as 
variations of A, subsericeata, I remember making 
known to him that they were not the least like those 
of that species sent to me in October, 1862, by 
Mr. Crewe, nor yet like others I had in April, 1863 ; 
for both Mr. Crewe's examples and the last named, 
although they varied slightly, were all constant to one 
particular, viz. a pale yellowish or whitish mark on 
each side of the ninth segment. 

It will be seen by the subjoined description that, 
from A. subsericeata, A. mancuniata is more distinct in 
the larval than in the perfect state, even the character 
of its markings being entirely different. 

Description, — Larva about three-quarters of an inch 
long, tapering gradually towards the head, which is 
grey-brown, with a dark brown line on each lobe. 
Ground colour of the body pale reddish-grey ; dorsal 
line scarcely paler, very thin, and enclosed by a broad 
brown line on either side, which gradually widens 
down to four-fifths of the segments, and then contracts 
towards the segmental divisions, and at the widest 
portions on each side is a rather large spot or blotch 
of blackish-brown. 

The subdorsal lines are of grey-brown, very thin 
and double, with a blackish-brown oblong blotch on 
them, about the same distance from the end of each 
segment as those on the dorsal region. 

The last four segments appear paler than the others, 
as the dorsal line on them is enclosed only by thin 
brown lines, and the subdorsal lines on them also 



118 ACIDALIA MANCUNIATA. 

have no dark spots, except a slight indication of them 
on the tenth segment only. 

A blackish-brown line on the spiracnlar region ex- 
tends between the tenth and thirteenth segments. 

The full-fed larva was figured on the 15th July, and 
on the 20th it changed, on the surface of the earth, to 
a very slender dark blackish-brown pupa, the tail of 
which was turned backwards. 

The moth appeared on the 9th of August. (William 
Buckler ; E.M.M., January, 1866, II, 189.) 



ACIDALIA IMMUTATA. 

Plate CXIX, fig. 1. 

I received eggs of this species from Dr. Knaggs on 
the 18th July, 1863, and the larvse hatched on July 
22nd. They chose for their food Polygonum aviculare, 
but did not attain any great size before hybernation ; 
through the winter they rested on the withered stems 
of their food-plant, and did not begin to feed again in 
spring till the young seedlings of the Polygonum had 
put out their second pair of leaves, when they seemed 
to find out that it was time to commence to eat again. 
They attained their full growth during the last week 
in May and the first week in June of the present 
summer, and spun themselves up in silken cocoons 
under some short moss which had grown upon the 
surface of the earth in their flower-pot. The first 
moth emerged on the 2nd of July, 1864. 

When full-grown the larva is about an inch and an 
eighth long. In shape it is cylindrical, slightly puffed 
at the spiracles, tapering evenly towards the head, 
which is small and round ; the whole skin is ribbed in 
rings which go quite round the body. The ground 
colour is a warm stone-coloured tint, and there is a 
dusky dorsal line forming two small dots at each seg- 
mental division ; above the spiracles an irregular double 
dusky line; spiracles black, placed in a stripe rather 



ACIDALIA IMMUTATA. 119 

paler than the ground colour, below which comes 
another dusky line, darkest on its upper edge and 
fadiug off below. 

The larva described above resembles in structure 
and colouring those of Acidalia fumata, A. promutata, 
and A. imitaria, except that the two last are longer ; 
and it is altogether different from the type furnished 
by the shorter, stiff, and flattish larvse of A. subsericeata, 
A. incanata, A. aversata, A. inornata, and A, osseata. 
(John Hellins, E.M.M., August, 1864, I, 72.) 

The egg of A. immutata is of a long cylindrical shape, 
flat at one end, more conical at the other, strongly 
ribbed, with transverse reticulation; colour pale buff, 
speckled with strawberry-pink. (J. Hellins, July, 
1868 ; E.M.M., September, 1868, V, 97.) 

On the 21st of July, 1870, I received a few eggs (or 
rather larvae, as the eggs had hatched on the way) of 
Acidalia immutata from the Rev. J. Hellins, of Exeter ; 
and subsequently the Rev. E. N. Bloomfield, of Guest- 
ling, near Hastings, sent me a further supply of eggs. 

The young larvse fed until the autumn on Polygonum 
aviculare, when they began to hybernate, having 
attained a length of half an inch, and being of average 
thickness in proportion. Head a little broader than the 
second segment, rather flattened and slightly notched 
on the crown ; body of nearly uniform width, but 
tapering very slightly anteriorly ; skin very finely, but 
almost inconspicuously, ribbed transversely ; ground 
colour pale olive-brown ; head brown, marbled with 
grey ; medio-dorsal stripe very indistinct ; on the 
anterior segments it is composed of a very fine double 
line, darker than the ground colour ; these lines con- 
join and become darker and more conspicuous poste- 
riorly, forming a distinct black stripe on the tenth, 
eleventh, and twelfth segments ; there are also four 
square black marks at equal distances apart on the 
dorsal surface, each of which is divided into two equal 
parts by the medio-dorsal line ; the subdorsal lines 
are brownish-grey, and the spiracular lines grey; 



120 ACIDALIA IMMUTATA. 

ventral surface olive-green, thickly variegated with 
darker, and having two almost imperceptible dark 
green central lines. In other specimens the belly is 
greyish in the centre, gradually becoming darker as 
it approaches the spiracular region, where it is smoky- 
black. 

When at rest the food-plant is grasped by the 
claspers, and the head curved inwards. (George T. 
Porritt, September 15th, 1871 ; Ent., October, 1871, 
V, 408.) 



ACIDALTA EEMTJTATA. 

Plate CXIX, fig. 2. 

Eggs were obtained from a specimen of this insect 
which I captured on the 15th June, 1870 ; they were 
red in colour, and hatched on the 27th of the same 
month. 

By August 9th the larvae had attained to an inch in 
length, when I described them as follows : 

Body rather rough to the touch, slender, uniformly 
cylindrical, and of nearly uniform thickness through- 
out ; head the same width as the second segment, and 
notched on the crown ; the face flat ; skin finely ribbed 
transversely, both dorsally and ventrally ; segmental 
divisions not very conspicuous ; ground colour dark 
olive-brown, approaching to dull black ventrally ; 
head light brown, variegated with darker, and with a 
black V-shaped mark, the apex of which is pointed 
upwards, on the upper part of the face ; the medio- 
dorsal stripe is composed of a very narrow, interrupted 
and indistinct greyish line ; there are no percep- 
tible subdorsal lines, but along the spiracles are several 
greyish-white marks, which are most conspicuous on 
the posterior segments ; on the eleventh segment, at 
each side, between the medio-dorsal and spiracular 
line, is a black spot ; the usual dots minute, black ; a 
slaty-grey stripe extends along the centre of the 



AOIDALIA REMUTATA. 121 

belly, gradually shading off into the blackish ground 
colour. 

My larvae fed on Polygonum aviculare, and when at 
rest, the food-plant was grasped by the claspers, and 
the body stretched out at full length, with the head 
raised to a considerable height ; when disturbed 
they fell to the ground at full length rigidly stiff, 
not attempting to roll into a ring. (George T. 
Porritt, July 12th, 1871 ; Ent., August, 1871, V, 360.) 



AOIDALIA STEIGILATA. 

Plate CXIX, fig. 4. 

On the 28th of August, 1870, I received from my 
friend Mr. J. P. Barrett, of Peckham, eight young 
larvse of this insect, obtained from eggs deposited by 
moths captured by him during the previous month at 
Folkestone. They fed on Polygonum aviculare until 
autumn, when they began to hybernate, having attained 
the length of about three-quarters of an inch. At the 
beginning of April, not being able to procure knot- 
grass for them, dandelion was substituted, on which 
they at once commenced to feed, showing a preference 
for the withered leaves. By May 12th the only larva 
I had left had. reached an inch and a quarter in length, 
and on June 2nd, it being nearly full-grown, I took 
down the following description : 

Length nearly an inch and a half, cylindrical, very 
slender, and tapering slightly towards the head. Head 
not notched on the crown, about as wide as, perhaps 
a little wider than, the second segment ; the face 
slightly flattened, and the cheeks globular. Skin 
ribbed transversely, which gives it a rather rough 
though uniform appearance. 

The ground colour is grey, tinged with green ; the 
head grey, faintly variegated with very pale brown. 
Of the longitudinal stripes, the most distinct is the 
narrow, dull green, medio-dorsal line ; the subdorsal 



122 AOIDALIA STRIGILATA. 

and spiracular lines are very inconspicuous, and seem 
to be composed of confused, waved, faint brown lines ; 
spiracles very small, brown. On the centre of the 
back, and on the extreme anterior edge of the sixth, 
seventh, eighth, and ninth segments, is an intensely 
black square mark, divided into two distinct spots by the 
medio-dorsal line passing through the centre ; slightly 
in front of each of these marks are two other equally 
black but smaller dots, one being a little to the right, 
the other to the left, and placed at the posterior edge 
of the segments. The belly is pale greenish-grey, with 
a still paler central stripe, and on each side of this 
stripe are one or two very faint, pale brown, zigzag, 
longitudinal lines. 

In the middle of June it spun its cocoon (which was 
more firmly constructed than those of other species of 
the genus I have had) at the foot of the knotgrass on 
which it had been feeding. (George T. Porritt, July 
13th, 1871 ; E.M.M., September, 1871, VIII, 91.) 



Acid alia imitaria. 
Plate CXIX, fig. 5. 

The egg of A. imitaria is somewhat pear-shaped, 
but flattened at the smaller end ; strongly ribbed, and 
irregularly reticulated between ; colour glistening 
white, with small blotches of delicate pink. (J. Hellins, 
July, 1868; E.M.M., September, 1868, V, 97.) 

One beaten from clematis by Mr. Jeffrey, of Saffron 
Walden, May 17th, 1871. 

This larva is very remarkably slender and snake- 
like, in length an inch and a sixteenth, the thoracic and 
the posterior segments short and the rest very long, 
each of these being subdivided into about twenty-seven 
rings by deep and close wrinkles. 

The colour is a very pale, rather greyish-buff tint. 
The dorsal line begins on the second thoracic segment 



ACIDALIA IM1TARIA. 123 

as a whitish line between two faint brown ones, and 
on the other it begins in that way, but the lines soon 
meet and become a brown line. The subdorsal is also 
brown, and is bordered above by a much paler stripe 
than the ground colour, which widens towards near 
the middle and attenuates towards the end of each 
segment. There is a spiracular line of brown rather 
fainter than the subdorsal, and this is followed by a 
puffed stripe of paler, nearly white. The spiracles 
are black. The tubercular dots are very minute, of 
dark brown, and the bristles also very short and 
fine. 

N.B. — At the beginning of each segment the 
whitish dorsal line is distinct, and marked on each 
side with a short line of dark brown. 

The ventral surface is a little darker and greyer, 
having a central pale stripe, and two brown ones on 
each side, the inner ones the darkest and running not 
parallel, but so as to enclose the central line in an 
elongated pear shape. A dark line runs down the 
ventral proleg, and the anal proleg is half brown 
behind. 

This larva, when alarmed, suddenly throws itself 
into a spiral shape of two coils, and sometimes bends 
itself together head and tail, and jumps from the 
ground tor an inch or two with surprising elasticity. 
(William Buckler, 1871 ; Note Book I, 82.) 

This larva astonishes me by its extraordinary length 
and slimness ; it rests with its four claspers attached 
almost close together, and its body elevated at an 
angle of 45 degrees, and swaying backwards and for- 
wards with every breath of air, or with the motion of 
the room, or the trembling of the hand ; I do not 
allude to the undulating movement from side to side, 
which is a normal habit of Geometers when not per- 
fectly at ease. 

The head is semi-prone, and scarcely as wide as the 
second segment. The body is uniformly slender, with 
a raised lateral skin-fold interrupted at the divisions of 



124 ACIDALIA IMITARIA. 

the segments ; there are also two almost imperceptible 
ridges, one on each side, equidistant between the 
lateral skin-fold and a median line of the back; the 
body is also transversely wrinkled or divided into 
sections, from sixteen to twenty on each segment ; 
the number doubtless uniform in the species, but 
not in the individual; after the ninth segment these 
sections are manifestly fewer and wider than on the 
anterior and median segments ; there are many short 
stiff scattered bristles about the head and body, more 
particularly about the posterior extremity of the latter. 
The colour of the larva is pale putty-colour, almost 
white, with a medio-dorsal smoke-coloured stripe, 
which grows gradually paler as it approaches the 
head ; lighter and darker stripes are discernible on 
the sides of the body; the lowest on each side is the 
darkest, and is undulating; the spiracles are black, 
and below the skin-fold, more especially on the third, 
fourth, and fifth segments, is a vague blotch of black. 
The larva feeds on Stellaria media (common chick- 
weed) ; and my kind friend Mr. Doubleday, who sent 
it to me, accompanies the insect with the following 
note : — " Like the larvae of all the Acidalide, they are 
difficult to keep through the winter, even upon plants 
growing in pots ; only four out of twenty which I had 
survived the winter ; and this morning I found three 
of them bad gone down." It was full-fed, and buried 
in the earth on the 18th of May, 1872. (Edward 
Newman ; Ent., July, 1872, VI, 139.) 



ACIDALIA EMUTARIA. 

Plate CXIX, fig. 6. 

Through the kindness of Messrs. Fenn and A. H. 
Jones, I am enabled to give some account of the 
earlier stages of this species. 

The egg-laying female was captured on the 13th 
July, 1866, in a cultivated marsh, flying amongst the 



ACIDALIA EMUTARIA. 125 

reeds which line the sides of the dykes. This locality 
would point to some marsh plant being its natural 
food, but we reared our larvse in confinement upon 
Medicago liipulina, Lotus comiciilatus, and Polygonum 
aviculare. 

My larvae hatched on the 22nd of July, 1866; 
hybernated when about one-third grown ; began to 
feed again about the end of February, 1867 ; moulted 
twice during April and May ; spun up in the second 
week of June ; and the moths appeared on the 7th and 
10th of July, full-sized specimens, and one of them 
especially deserving Haworth's name of subroseata. 

The eggs are of an elongated pear-shape, the stalk- 
end being cut off flat. (N.B. — I notice that the eggs of 
several species of Acidalia exhibit this truncated form 
at one or both ends.) They are ribbed longitudinally, 
and finely punctured ; when first laid their colour is 
pale bluish-green, afterwards changing to a straw- 
colour with spots and irregular splashes of pink. 

The little slender larvas, when first hatched, are pale 
greenish, with pinkish heads, afterwards becoming 
very plainly coloured — pale ochreous-grey, with a few 
dingy black lines and markings. 

One of my four larvae died early in winter, but the 
other three bore the cold very well; whilst in the 
same outhouse the extreme frost slew some of the 
more tender species of hybernating larvae — Agrotis 
ripse and A. lunigera, for example. I had one fright 
about them, however. One has heard of the grass 
growing under the feet of a sluggard, and it is a 
fact that during the winter, while they were resting 
almost as motionless as the withered stalks of their 
food, two of my three larvae became decidedly tinged 
with bright green, and 5 on examination with a lens, I 
found that this tint was caused by the young growth 
of a species of moss ! (Tortula — ?). 

However, it luckily proved to be less than skin 
deep, and was without difficulty got rid of at the first 
spring moult. 



126 ACIDALIA EMUTARIA. 

When full-fed the larva is about an inch in length, 
following the A. imitaria type, i. e. long, cylindrical, 
slender, and tapering slightly towards the head ; the 
skin evenly ringed ; the head a little flattened above, 
and rounded at the sides. 

The colouring is so plain and dull in many of the 
Acidalia larvae, that one fears a detailed description 
may give the idea of something much more ornamental 
than the reality ; and yet it is necessary to give the 
little details in order to show how the various species 
differ. 

The ground colour of A. emutaria, then, is a pale 
ochreous-grey ; the dorsal line is a very fine whitish 
ochreous thread, distinct at the beginning of each 
segment, but soon almost extinguished by the union 
of the blackish lines which border it, and which shade 
off towards the subdorsal line through a brown into 
the ground colour, making the region of the back 
look darker than the sides; just at each segmental 
fold there is a pair of brown or blackish wedge-shaped 
spots ; the subdorsal line is also a very fine whitish 
thread, edged below with a black line, which is most 
distinct about the middle of each segment, whence also 
some very fine oblique lines slope downwards behind 
each spiracle. 

The spiracles are black, and just below them comes 
a sooty-brown line shading off gradually into the pale 
grey of the centre of the belly. 

Of the two larvae which I retained for myself, one 
spun up against the side of the flower-pot, covering 
itself with a thin but opaque flat web, into which it 
drew a few bits of moss, etc. ; the other spun up on 
the surface of the earth in the pot, forming an irregu- 
lar oval cocoon as big as a horse-bean, and nearly 
covered with fine bits of earth and grains of sand ; 
the pupse I did not examine until after the exit of the 
moths. (John Hellins, 29th July, 1867; E.M.M., 
September, 1867, IV, 88.) 



AOIDALIA DEGENERAEJA. 127 

AOIDALIA DEGENERARIA. 

Plate CXIX, fig. 9. 

On the 8th of August, 1871, I had the pleasure of 
receiving from Mr. George Harding, of Bristol, the 
welcome gift of eight young larvse of this species, 
hatched on the 29th July from eggs laid loose in a 
box on the 18th by a much worn female which had 
been captured the same day in the Isle of Portland. 

Mr. Harding also informed me that the eggs were 
pink in colour, and became darker and more diugy 
just before hatching, and that the newly-hatched 
larvae differed in no respect but that of size from their 
appearance when consigned to me, having fed from 
the first on Polygonum aviculare. 

At this time, being ten days old, they were about 
three lines long, slender, and of a greenish-brown 
colour, and, when at rest, were generally in a looped 
position, but were remarkably timid, tucking their 
heads under and curling up into a close coil at the 
least alarm, and persistently remaining in this posture 
for a long time ; their voluntary movements were 
very slow and measured. 

By the middle of September they had changed their 
colouring to a rich cinnamon-brown above, and 
blackish beneath ; on a close scrutiny for details at 
this time they presented exactly the same design as 
hereafter described in the adult state ; they now 
began to be lethargic, and to show symptoms of 
hybernating, but, as the Polygonum was still pro- 
curable, I often disturbed them with fresh food to 
incite them to eat, in the hope of getting one or two 
to feed up before winter ; this at one time seemed 
probable, though with a change of colder weather 
they baffled my design by ceasing to feed, and insisting 
on sleep. 

In this state, and reduced to six in number, on 
October 29th they were transferred to a pot with 



128 ACIDALIA DEGENERARIA. 

growing plants of dandelion, Veronica polita, and 
Plantago lanceolata, covered with coarse muslin and 
kept in a window seat facing west, in a room without 
fire; by this date they had grown to eight lines in 
length, and were rather darker than before. 

By the middle of February, 1872, I observed the 
plants in a dying condition, and a few indications of 
mould generating amongst the withered leaves, which, 
however, had not attacked the larvae, resting as they 
were on the sides of the pot. I now took them out 
and placed them in a new abode ; and the weather 
soon after being severe, I put them in another room 
with a fire, in order to try them with bramble, and 
soon had the pleasure of seeing them nibble at it, and 
also at Oerastium and Veronica, though the bramble 
seemed to be preferred. Satisfied with this experiment, 
I then restored them to their former colder quarters, 
where they did very well, feeding a little from time to 
time whenever the severity of the weather relaxed a 
little, and by March 7th two of them had quite out- 
stripped their companions in growth, and by the 13th 
had attained apparently their full size, still, however, 
feeding a little until April, on the 15th of which 
month they assumed the pupa state ; another followed 
their example on the 26th, one on May 8th, one more 
on the 26th, the last on June 30th ; the four earliest 
appeared in the imago state from June 14th to 24th, 
and a fifth moth appeared on the 14th of July. 

When about to change, the larva drew around it 
with a few fine threads a leaf of bramble or Veronica, 
or any withered bit of leaf or moss it found on the 
surface of the soil, and changed therein. 

After hybernation they seemed to have lost the 
power of curling up when disturbed, but now seemed 
to feign death by extreme rigidity, allowing them- 
selves to be turned over and rolled about without 
betraying life by any movement; their natural posture, 
too, in repose on their food-plants was straight and 
stick-like. 



AOIDALIA DEGENERARIA. 129 

I could not help noticing how closely, both in form 
and general appearance, these larvse of A. degeneraria 
came to those of A. inornata. 

When full-grown the larva of A. degeneraria is 
seven-eighths of an inch in length, broadest at the 
ninth segment, and from thence tapering gradually to 
the head (the smallest segment) ; the posterior seg- 
ments taper but little to the rounded anal tip ; the 
body is convex both above and below, and has a pro- 
jecting rounded ridge along the sides, so that it 
appears somewhat flattened ; the segmental divisions 
are well defined by the end of each segment project- 
ing at the side, in breadth, beyond the beginning of 
the next ; the skin is rugose, with about twelve sub- 
dividing wrinkles in each segment; the head indented 
on the crown. 

In colour the head is chiefly blackish-brown, con- 
spicuously marked on the crown of each lobe with 
pale cinnamon or bright rust-colour, which extends 
as a stripe down its outer side ; a patch of the same 
colour is on the dorsal surface of the three following 
segments, being rounded at the sides on the second 
segment, triangular and pointing backwards on the 
third and fourth; with these exceptions, the rest of 
the back, as far as the end of the eighth segment, is 
deeply suffused with dark brown, the remainder being 
again of bright rust-colour, strongly contrasting with 
the darker hue of the middle segments ; on the back 
of each segment, from the fifth to the ninth inclusive, 
are double darker brown markings, somewhat like Vs 
pointing backwards, and standing one a little in front 
of the other at the hinder part of the segment ; their 
limbs are curved outward soon after their commence- 
ment, and by degrees finely attenuated as they reach 
the next segment in front, each arm of a V being thus 
like a miniature willow leaf ; in front of these, and 
embraced by their arms, is rather an elliptic shape of 
similar dark brown, and then a black square mark, 
close to the segmental division ; both of these shapes 

VOL. VII. 9 



130 AC1DALIA DEGENERARIA. 

are distinctly divided in halves by the thin pale 
greyish-ochreous dorsal line, which then vanishes, but 
reappears as a pale spot or two within the base of the 
hinder V mark; the subdorsal line is of the same pale 
colour, and also appears only for a little just at each 
end of a segment, where it intersects a dark brown 
streak at the side of the back, slanting in a course 
parallel to the limbs of the Vs ; on the hinder rust- 
coloured segments the markings are more tender, and 
on the last three are but imperfect diamond shapes 
of brown, the tubercular blackish dots being visible 
on them ; a faint thin line of ashy-grey separates the 
colouring of the back from the blackish belly, which 
has on each segment three ashy-grey marks, together 
in form resembling a lyre, and two dots of the same 
grey colour at each end ; the spiracles are black, and 
the tubercular warts and their short bristles are very 
minute and rather numerous at each end of the body. 

The only variations that occurred were, that one 
individual from first to last continued to be rust- 
coloured, and that another became after hybernation 
wholly suffused with dark brown. 

The pupa is three-eighths of an inch in length, 
plump, and tapering rapidly near to the anal tip, which 
ends in a blunt curved spike proceeding from a 
little flattened knob ; its colour is chestnut-brown. 
(William Buckler, August, 1872; E.M.M., October, 
1872, IX, 115.) 



ACIDALIA EMARGINATA. 

Plate CXIX, fig. 10. 

I have several times had the eggs of Acidalia 
emarginata, but it was not until last year that I 
succeeded in rearing the larvae to maturity, the speci- 
mens being the result of a batch of eggs received 
from Mr. F. D. Wheeler, of Norwich, on the 29th 
July, 1874. 



ACIDALIA EMARGINATA. 131 

The eggs are oblong-oval, and when fresh are 
orange-colour, but before hatching change to purplish- 
red; this event took place the day following their 
arrival. 

The newly emerged larva is olive -green, with 
wainscot-brown head. Being supplied with Poly- 
gonum aviculare, they fed and grew slowly until 
hybernation, which portion of their existence ex- 
tended over a long period, as they ceased feeding in 
the autumn, and did not recommence until early in 
May following. By the middle of June they were 
fall-grown, and may be described as follows : 

Length about three-quarters of an inch, and of 
average bulk in proportion ; head about the same 
width as the second segment; it has the face rather 
flat, but the lobes rounded, and is notched on the 
crown. When viewed from above the body seems 
flat, but seen from the side the under surface is 
rounded ; the ninth segment is the widest, and from 
it the rest gradually taper towards the head; the 
tenth, eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth are of about 
equal width ; all these overlap considerably, thus 
rendering the divisions very distinct; this overlapping, 
too, makes the skin at the side appear as a conspicu- 
ous lateral ridge. The skin is tough and has a rough 
appearance, owing to its being transversely ribbed 
throughout. 

The ground colour is dirty ochreous, in some speci- 
mens strongly suffused with a dingy smoke-colour; 
the head is of the same colour, and from it extends a 
pale dorsal line, this line being bordered on each side 
of the tenth to thirteenth segments with an irregular, 
broad, and very dark stripe ; on segments two to five 
these stripes are paler and narrower, whilst on seg- 
ments six, seven, eight, and nine they become con- 
spicuous black X-like marks; the side of the lateral 
ridges is tinged with reddish -ochreous, and there are 
various brown freckles between this and the dorsal 
line. The ventral surface is of the same tint as the 



132 ACIDALTA EMARG1NATA. 

ground of the dorsal surface, and is freckled with 
brown. 

The larvse began to spin loose cocoons in the 
corners at the bottom of the cage on the 21st June. 

The pupa is about three-eighths of an inch long, 
smooth and shining ; the colour reddish-yellow, with 
the wing-cases greenish. 

The first imago appeared on the 15th July, and 
was speedily followed by the remainder. (George 
T. Porritt, 'May 3rd, 1876; E.M.M., June, 1876, 
XIII, 13.) • 

Oabera exanthemata. 
Plate CXX, fig. 3. 

There is such a meagre description of the larva of 
this insect in Newman's British Moths that I think 
I shall not be open to the charge of repetition in 
giving a more complete one. 

Female specimens taken in the middle of June, 1870, 
deposited eggs, which hatched in about ten days ; the 
larvse fed on sallow, and were full-grown at the end of 
July. 

When the markings were noticeable it became 
apparent that there were two distinct varieties, which 
may be described as follows : 

Yar. 1. — Length about an inch, of average thickness 
and uniformly cylindrical throughout. Head a little 
broader than the second segment, slightly flattened 
and not notched on the crown. Skin rather puckered ; 
ground colour light green, of different shades in dif- 
ferent individuals. Head of the same colour, marked 
near the crown and on the lower part of the cheeks 
with deep purple. A narrow green pulsating vessel 
forms the medio-dorsal line, and dorsally, on each 
segment, from the fourth to the eleventh inclusive, is a 
conspicuous purple arrow-head mark, the apex of each 
being close to the posterior part of the segment ; the 
apex of each of these marks encloses a black spot 



CABERA EXANTHEMATA. 133 

bordered with whitish; subdorsal lines yellowish- 
white, in some specimens very indistinct or wanting ; 
an interrupted, irregular, dull purplish band forms 
the spiracular line. Spiracles and the usual dots 
black. Belly uniformly green, with the segmental 
divisions yellowish. Legs purple ; ventral legs purple 
on the outside only. 

Var. 2. — Brighter green than in var. 1, and the 
purple dorsal arrow-heads wanting, but having the 
distinct black dots on the posterior of the segments ; 
the dorsal line is more distinct than in var. 1 ; the 
subdorsal lines are yellowish, and the spiracular lines 
formed by a series of interrupted purple marks, most 
distinct on the anterior segments. Head without the 
purple marks on the crown, but marked with that 
colour on the cheeks as in var. 1. (George T. Porritt, 
11th May, 1871 ; Ent., June, 1871, V, 317.) 



CORYCIA PUNCTATA. 

Plate CXX, fig. 4. 

0. temerata \G. punctata of Stainton's Manual] 
occurs in this neighbourhood (Exeter), flying in May 
and June near wild cherry trees, or along blackthorn 
hedges, and I have once or twice succeeded in rearing 
it from the egg. 

The ? s certainly prefer to deposit their eggs in the 
crevices of the bark of their food-plant, or at the axils 
of the small shoots ; and if they have not the oppor- 
tunity of doing so will lay but sparingly, or even 
refuse to lay any eggs at all. 

The larva) are hatched in about fourteen days, and 
are at first of a deep yellow colour ; they soon change 
to green, and after a time put on a broadish dorsal 
stripe of pale yellow ; this at the last moult changes 
to the dorsal row of bright red spots which, con- 
trasting with the rich velvety green of the ground 
colour, make the larva so handsome to look at. 



134 CORYCIA PUNCTATA. 

The only variety of the larva I ever saw I captured 
on blackthorn in August, 1863 ; it was of a pale 
bluish-green ground colour, the sides and belly being 
more of a whitish-green ; the bright red dorsal spots 
of the type were replaced by a very indistinct, 
interrupted, reddish-brown line, and on either side of 
this there was, on each segment, a pale whitish dot, 
while the usual red spots on each side of the head 
were absent. Fortunately, Mr. Buckler, after having 
taken a figure and description of the larva, bred the 
moth during the next summer, and thus settled the 
question of its species beyond doubt. (John Hellins, 
B.M.M., April, 1865, I, 263.) 

AVENTIA FLEXULA. 

Plate CXXI, fig. 1. 

It is not often that I have taken on myself to make 
any remarks on the position of a species in any of the 
lists which from time to time are put forward, but in 
this case I cannot help saying a few words. 

It certainly seems that the imago has been a puzzle 
to systematists, for we find its position varied from 
one division to another repeatedly ; but I think that a 
knowledge of the larval state would have prevented all 
this uncertainty. 

Staudinger, to my mind, has come nearest the truth, 
in placing Aventia at the end of the Nocture, and among 
Catocala, Toxocampa, etc. ; but I think he is wrong in 
letting Toxocampa come between Gatocala and Aventia ; 
and in my description below I shall italicise those 
points in the larva of Aventia which induce me to 
place it next to Gaiocala. 

The full-grown larva is seven-eighths of an inch in 
length, widest at the ninth and tenth segments, the head 
full but rather less in bulk than the second segment; 
the anal flap rounded; the body above is convex, but 
each segment a little swollen in the middle and scored 
across with two deep wrinkles, both at its hinder end; 



AVENTIA FLEXULA. 135 

beloiv the spiracles is a rather inflated projecting ridge, 
fringed with a row of fleshy filaments ; some of these 
filaments are simple, others are branched like the 
" chevaux de frise" one sees sometimes on enclosure 
walls ; the belly is flat ; the anterior legs well developed ; 
the first hoo pairs of ventral legs much shorter than the 
other hvo pairs, though each pair is progressively longer 
than the preceding, the anal pair being the longest ; the 
dorsal tubercular warts are prominent, each furnished 
with a fiue short hair; on each segment the hinder 
pair is much larger than the front pair, and on the 
ninth and twelfth segments largest ; on the twelfth they 
are placed on a transverse prominent ridge. 

The colour is of a more or less pale dull bluish or 
greyish green, or else this colour slightly tinged with 
brownish-ochreous, rather paler on the sides ; the 
dorsal line darker green, — being, in fact, a series of spear- 
points faintly edged with whitish green, and by short 
black streaks at the end of each segment ; the sub- 
dorsal marking is a paler tint of the ground, to be 
seen plainly only just at the segmental divisions, but 
its course is indicated well enough on the other parts 
by a fine sinuous line of black above, and a line of 
darker green below ; the ninth and twelfth segments 
are darker in tint than the others ; slight curves of 
blackish dots or dashes are on the back of the second, 
third, and fourth segments along the subdorsal region; 
the head is more whitish-green than the body, and is 
marked with spots and curves of black on each lobe 
and about the mouth ; the tips of the tubercular warts 
are black, on bases of whitish-green, and a broad 
streak of this pale colour is on the side of each seg- 
ment beyond the fourth ; the filaments are greenish- 
white ; the belly a dull, pale bluish-green ; the ante- 
rior legs are spotted with black ; a black streak runs 
down the front of the fourth pair of ventral legs ; 
the spiracles of the ground colour are ringed with dark 
brown. 

The habit of the larva is to lie close by day for hours 



136 AVENTIA FLEXULA. 

together, with its legs spread out flat to their full 
extent upon lichens, on which at night it feeds. 

I am indebted to several friends for opportunities 
of studying this species. Mr. Harwood sent me in 
1868 the first I ever saw, which he had beaten either 
from oak or aspen, and then I took it to be a young 
Catocala. The Rev. B. Smith and Mr. W. Machin 
kindly sent me others beaten from lichen-covered 
thorns, cherry, and yew, in the three following years, 
and from one of them I was able to obtain a moth, 
the larva pupating in a folded hawthorn leaf after 
spinning the edges of the leaf closely together. The 
date when this larva was full-grown was May 23rd, 
1871, and the moth appeared June 21st. 

Since the above w f as written, I append a brief 
mention of a fine example of this larva which Mr. 
Harwood has just sent me : — It is a little over an 
inch in length ; the third segment is tumid, and beyond 
the fourth there is on each of the other segments a 
slight transverse swelling which bears the hinder pair 
of tubercular warts ; it has but few simple filaments, 
all the rest being more or less branched. 

Its colour is brownish ochreous-green, and with 
fewer black marks than usual, for which, in this 
instance, a rather deeper tint of the ground colour is 
substituted. 

This larva, when disturbed on its arrival, walked in 
a position like that of Ophiodes lunaris, as figured by 
Hiibner. (William Buckler, June 11th, 1873; E.M.M., 
July, 1873, X, 42.) 

The pupa is a little over three-eighths of an inch in 
length, and rather stout in proportion ; the head is 
rounded ; the body cylindrical, or of uniform thickness 
to within the three last segments of the abdomen, 
from whence it tapers to the anal point, which ends 
in a diverging group of five rough minute recurved 
bristles. Its colour is pitchy black and shining, the 
segmental divisions of the low^er part of the abdomen 
ringed with pinkish-brown. The wing-cases are long 



AVENTIA FLEXULA. 137 

and with rather less polish than the other parts, and 
as they meet the ends of the leg- and antenna-cases 
their margin is hollowed into a slight concave form. 

It reposes in a whity-brown tough silken cocoon, 
spun to the upper surface of a hawthorn leaf after it 
has been drawn together by uniting the edges of the 
leaf, which then soon assumes something of a fusiform 
look, but yet with the appearance of a mere withered 
leaf. The moth came forth from this pupa on July 
7th, 1873. (William Buckler, July, 1873; Note 
Book I, 120.) 



Steenia CLATHRATA. 
Plate OXXI, fig. 6. 

Last year (1875), at the end of May, the Rev. 
P. H. Jennings, M.A., of Longfield Rectory, kindly 
sent me a few eggs of this species ; they were oblong- 
oval, and indented on the upper surface ; the colour 
grass-green. 

On the 8th of June they hatched, and the newly 
emerged larvae were dingy green, with the extremities 
tinged with yellow, and the head pale brown. On 
being supplied with the common white Dutch clover, 
they fed well until the 19th of July, by which time 
they were full-grown, and a description was taken as 
follows : 

Length about three-quarters of an inch, and of 
average bulk in proportion ; the head has the lobes 
globular, is shining, rather hairy, and slightly notched 
on the crown ; body cylindrical, and of nearly uniform 
width throughout ; skin smooth, clothed with a few, 
almost imperceptible, very short hairs ; segmental 
divisions distinct. The ground colour is bright green, 
darkest along the sides ; the head green, with the 
mandibles brown ; two parallel white lines extend 
through the centre of the dorsal area, enclosing 
between them an almost hair-like, white dorsal line 



138 STRENIA CLATHRATA. 

through the centre of a band of the ground colour ; 
the subdorsal lines are also white, as are also the 
broad spiracular lines, and there is another finer 
white line between the dorsal and subdorsal ones ; 
segmental divisions yellowish ; the spiracles very 
minute, black ; ventral surface green, longitudinally 
striped with numerous very fine darker lines. 

Changes to pupa below the surface of the ground. 

The pupa is three- eighths of an inch long, rather 
stout, but tapering sharply towards the anal segment, 
which finishes with a fine point ; the eye-, leg-, and 
wing-cases prominent ; colour dark mahogany-brown. 

Part of the imagos emerged in the middle of the 
following month (August), but most remained over 
the winter, appearing as moths at the end of May and 
beginning of June, 1876. (George T. Porritt, 10th 
July, 1876; Ent., August, 1876, IX, 178.) 



LOZOGRAMMA PETRARIA. 

Plate CXXI, fig. 7. 

A captured moth laid me some eggs on the 10th of 
May of this summer (1864). 

The eggs were at first pale straw-coloured, soon 
turned bright red, and afterwards became dingy. 

The larvae hatched on the 28th of May, and fed 
throughout most freely on common fern {Pteris 
aquilina) ; they rested at full length, but when dis- 
turbed twisted into knots and jumped about angrily ; 
they went to earth during the last week in June. 

The larvaB assimilate well in appearance to their 
food-plant, and must be hard to detect ; when full- 
fed their length is rather over an inch, shape cylin- 
drical, and of uniform size throughout, except that 
the segmental folds look contracted, and the head is 
rather flattened. The ground colour is olive-green, 
the belly paler, more olive-grey ; some individuals had 
a slight reddish tint. At first sight the whole larva 



LOZOGRAMMA PETRARIA. 139 

seems to be covered with very slender chocolate- 
brown longitudinal lines — I could count at least 
twenty-four all round the body, but on examination it 
is seen that these are arranged in pairs ; thus there 
is a double dorsal and three double subdorsal lines, 
the lowest being darkest and thickest. The spiracles 
are black, and. below them is a creamy white line ; the 
belly is striped somewhat like the back, only that the 
lines are more diffuse and not so numerous ; the 
segmental folds are red. (John Hellins, July, 1864; 
B.M.M., August, 1864, 1, 71.) 



Selidosema plumaria. 
Plate OXXII, fig. 3. 

Several specimens of this species which I took in the 
New Forest, on the 31st of July last year (1877), de- 
posited eggs. These began to hatch during the third 
week in August, and the larvse fed well until autumn 
on the common ling. By the first week in December 
the largest specimen was about an inch long, but the 
majority were from half to three-quarters of an inch. 
They fed sparingly on withered ling shoots and leaves 
through the winter, and by the end of March the 
largest was nearly full-grown. 

Length about an inch and a quarter, and moderately 
stout in proportion ; head narrower than the second 
segment, into which it can be partially withdrawn ; it 
has the face flat, and there is a slight depression on 
the crown. Body of nearly uniform width through- 
out, and cylindrical ; the segments overlapping each 
other, however, and each being divided into sections 
by transverse ribs, together with a somewhat pro- 
minent ridge along the spiracles, give it a rather 
uneven appearance ; the anal segment ends in a 
rather sharp triangular appendage, and the anal legs, 
being set widely apart, are very conspicuous ; skin 
smooth, but tough in texture. 



140 SELIDOSBMA PLUMARIA. 

General colour uniformly pale stone-grey ; head of 
the same colour, with a dark crescentic mark sur- 
mounting each mandible, and another dark brown 
crescentic mark above these ; the mandibles are brown, 
of a still darker shade. A double, very dark brown, 
almost black, line extends through the dorsal area; 
on the anterior segments it is paler and more uniform, 
but after it reaches the fifth it becomes swollen and 
darker in the middle of each segment, which gives it 
a conspicuous and rather interrupted appearance ; 
subdorsal and spiracular lines pale grey, the latter 
rather prettily edged above and below with chocolate- 
brown, the brown being most noticeable on the 
anterior segments ; the spiracles, and four very dis- 
tinct dots on the dorsal area on each segment, 
intensely black. 

Ground colour of the ventral surface of a yellower 
grey than the dorsal area ; it has a broad central pale 
grey band, enclosing a fine double reddish-brown line; 
outside the band, but adjoining it, on the sixth, seventh, 
eighth, ninth, and tenth segments, is a conspicuous 
dark smoky mark ; and between the central band and 
the spiracular region is another faint pale line. 

About the middle of April the first went below the 
surface, and the moths emerged at the end of July. 
(George T. Porritt, October 4th, 1878; E.M.M., 
November, 1878, XV, 137.) 



FlDONIA ATOMAKIA. 

Plate OXXII, fig. 4. 

Two larvae found feeding on Ly thrum salicaria, 
kindly sent me in 1868 by Mr. W. H. Jeffrey from 
Wicken Fen, produced this species on the 28th of 
May, 1869. 

The larvss arrived, and one of them was figured, on 
the 14th of August, 1868. Both being alike, and 
differing from some of the varieties of this variable 



FIDONIA ATOMAEIA. 141 

species, I did not at the time recognise them ; perhaps 
the locality of Wicken Fen diverted me from any 
suspicion of their being this heather-frequenting 
species. 

The larva was an inch or a little more in length, 
and moderately slender. The ground colour was a 
dull yellowish pale green, minutely freckled with 
brownish ; this describes the dorsal stripe, which is 
edged with brownish and is relieved on either side by 
a yellow line ; then there is another freckled stripe 
with darker edges similar to the dorsal stripe, and on 
this are the brown tubercular dots ; the subdorsal line 
is yellow, and is followed by another stripe of 
brownish freckles, and then come three dark greenish 
or blackish very fine lines, followed immediately by the 
spiracular stripe of bright yellow ; the spiracles at its 
upper margin are flesh-colour outlined with black ; 
the belly is similar in tint to the back, but has a broad 
paler central stripe edged with brownish, and a fine 
narrow line of the same on each side. The head, anal 
segment, and anal legs are freckled with reddish or 
brownish-red. In this larva none of the lines are 
entire, but are composed of interrupted atoms. 
(William Buckler, May 28th, 1869; Note Book II, 
143.) 



FlDONIA BRUNNEATA. 

Plate CXXII, fig. 6. 

In October, 1867, Mr. Buckler sent me five eggs of 
this species, which had been kindly given to him by 
Dr. Buchanan White of Perth. On receiving them I 
examined them carefully under my microscope, and 
made the following description : 

The egg is oval in outline, but flattened, the upper 
side being even depressed in the middle; the whole 
surface covered with reticulations — generally hexagons, 
but some only pentagons, in shape ; and at each angle 



142 FID0NIA BRUNNEATA. 

where the lines of the reticulation meet there is a 
little raised bright white knob (a peculiarity I have 
not yet observed in any other egg), the whole egg 
looking as if set with tiny pearls on a ground colour 
of shining salmon-pink. 

About the end of February, 1868, the eggs grew 
darker, and between March 2nd and 8th four larvae 
emerged, the fifth dying unhatched. After a little 
hesitation they began to eat buds of whortleberry 
(Vaccinium myrtillus) , but somehow, within a few 
days, two of them died. The two survivors, however, 
grew on steadily, and from being dark brown at their 
first appearance, after a moult or two began to assume 
a striped dress ; the ground colour was now pale 
grey — almost white ; the dorsal and supra-spiracular 
lines almost black, with an intermediate subdorsal line 
of brown ; and the spiracular stripe tinged with 
yellow. 

About the 24th of April the larger of the two larvss 
seemed full-grown. At that time it was rather over 
half an inch in length, of uniform bulk, cylindrical, 
the head horny, the skin smooth, but puckered along 
the spiracles. The colouring was disposed in a 
multiplicity of fine lines, which I now give in due 
order. 

The dorsal line, widening in the middle of each seg- 
ment, dark green, closely edged with almost black 
threads ; then a thin white line ; then the subdorsal 
line of pale pinkish-brown outlined wifch darker 
brown ; then another thin white line ; then three 
olive-brown lines (the middle one palest, and the 
lower one darkest), partly showing distinct, and partly 
run together, so as to form a stripe just above the 
spiracles. 

The spiracular line broad, white, but tinged with 
yellow in the centre of each segment. The belly of a 
dirty white, with some oblique dashes, and lines of 
brown. 

This larva went to earth at the end of April, and 



FID0NJA BRUNNEATA. 143 

the motli from it appeared on the 1st of June. 
(John Hellins, June 23rd, 1868 ; E.M.M., September, 
1868, V, 108.) 



Scoria dealbata. 
Plate CXXIII, fig. 2. 

My notes on the earlier stages of this species are 
not so satisfactory as I could wish, for they were 
jotted down in a busy time; but, as far as they go, I 
believe them to be correct. 

On the 2nd of July, 1864, 1 received indirectly from 
Mr. Wilks (late of Ashford) some eggs, which began 
to hatch on the 7th ; I scarcely know any larva which 
varies so little in tint throughout its growth ; of 
course, as the bulk increases, more lines and mottlings 
appear, but they are all of the same ochreous and 
grey tints throughout. Mr. Stainton, in the Ento- 
mologist's Annual for 1862, has described the larva 
just before hybernation, when he says it was seven- 
twelfths of an inch in length ; but the three which I 
succeeded in retaining (some dozen others escaped 
from my not being able to attend to them in time) 
grew to a full inch in length before they ceased feed- 
ing ; all through the winter I noticed that, except in 
the coldest weather, they remained extended on the 
leno covering of their flower-pot, as though very fond 
of fresh air. 

On the 14th February they began eating again, and 
grew slowly till the middle of April, when they 
changed skin for the last time. About the middle 
of May they seemed to have attained their full size, 
and began spinning about the 20th. 

When full-grown this larva is a longish, stout- 
looking smooth looper, tapering considerably from 
the hinder segments towards the head ; the length an 
inch and a third ; the head flat and rounded at the 
sides ; the anal flap large. 



144 SCORIA DE ALB AT A. 

The general colour is ochreous or brownish grey, 
but ornamented with so many waved and irregular 
lines that it is hard to describe. The head is pale 
ochreous ; down the centre of the back is a double 
fine dusky line, which, with the first subdorsal line 
(composed of a double fine thread also), forms a series 
of irregular figures by alternately contracting and 
expanding ; on the anterior and posterior segments 
the dorsal line becomes closer and darker. Below 
the first subdorsal line is a stripe of yellowish or 
reddish-buff, then comes another waved fine double 
thread ; then the yellowish spiracles, scarcely dis- 
tinguishable in a drab stripe, which is bordered below 
with a dusky line, followed by a reddish-buff line ; the 
belly drab, with central and subventral whitish lines. 
The usual spots are represented by fine black dots, 
and the central segments in one specimen were 
suffused with a smoky hue. 

About the 20th of May these larvae began to spin, 
and soon formed for themselves beautiful spindle- 
shaped cocoons of yellow silk, attached to upright 
blades of grass. And here, unfortunately, I can say 
no more, for after waiting some time for the perfect 
insects I examined the cocoons closely, and found that, 
by some mischance, the pupa3 had been killed. But 
although I failed, I think the species might be easily 
reared if kept in the open air, and fed on growing 
plants of dock, chickweed, knotgrass, and the coarse 
grass which, in its localities, is doubtless the favourite 
food of this species. (John Hellins, October 4th, 
1865 ; E.M.M., January, 1866, II, 190.) 



Lythria purpuraria. 

On the 5th July, 1883, Herr Heinrich Disque sent 
me with the dead parent moth about twenty-four or 
twenty- five eggs of L. purpuraria. The shape of the 
egg is elongate-oval and rather flattened, though 



LYTHEIA PURPURAEIA. 145 

rounded at either end, yet one end is rather rounder 
and wider than the other, and there is a slight depres- 
sion on either side ; the embryo larva lies round the 
circumferent margin where the egg is thickest. 

On the 10 th two larvas hatched, and were whitish, 
very slender, and twisted in a coil when disturbed. The 
whitish body was marked on each side of the back 
with a darkish dull green subdorsal stripe, and the 
head striped. They became very pale as they lay up 
to moult ; but after the second moult the sides of the 
body seemed composed of blackish stripes, with a 
narrow dorsal stripe of whitish between them, a 
spiracular stripe of white, and a stripe of pale green 
on the flat belly. By August 3rd they were five lines 
long, very slender, three in number, committing 
ravages on the leaves by eating large portions out of 
them. The dorsal line begins of a creamy white on 
the thoracic segments, and from thence is light green, 
then darker green, but on the eleventh and twelfth 
segments is again light green and stouter ; the sub- 
dorsal is also creamy or greenish-white on the second 
segment only, but from thence can be with difficulty 
distinguished from the very dark blackish-green of 
the back, which forms a length-stripe ; below the sub- 
dorsal is a stripe of black, followed by the inflated 
spiracular stripe of greenish- white ; the belly is lightish 
green, having twin lines of darker green on either 
side, and on a ridge along the middle a paler line 
though faint ; the head is greenish white in front, and 
with the dark side-stripes of the body continued low 
down on each lobe ; papillas greenish-white ; anal 
plate dull black ; all the upper surface of the body is 
dull or velvety, but on the belly it glistens a little. 

On the 10th they were laid up to moult, just as the 
plant began to collapse from the swarms of plant-lice 
attacking it, which covered the entire plant, and were 
perpetually running over and worrying the larvae ; 
and on the 12th I found two had dropped off, ap- 
parently dead, and the third was hanging down in 
vol. Yiu 10 



146 LYTHRIA PURPURARIA. 

lifeless manner. On the 21st Mr. Hellins sent me 
the one larva he had reared to full growth, which he 
had reported on the 17th to be approaching thereto. 
I figured it at once, when it measured 20 to 21 
millimetres, and was of slender proportion, the rather 
flattened head in a line with the body, the mouth at 
the end, the second segment short, the sides of the 
third and fourth rather tumid, the ninth the stoutest 
segment, from whence it tapers slightly to the fourth, 
and also behind to the anal flap; in colour the head 
is green toward the middle of the face, and is striped 
on either side with blackish-green, and a subdorsal 
line of pale primrose-whitish, a velvety black stripe 
narrowing towards the mouth, and a lateral stripe (a 
continuation of the spiracular stripe of the body) of 
primrose- whitish, having a central fine black dotted 
line ; from the crown is a pale whitish -yellow dorsal 
line, which soon melts into the green of the face ; the 
mouth is pale greenish ; the antennal papillae are 
green ringed with black ; the body is very dark green 
above on the back, blending imperceptibly into black 
at the side, handsomely relieved by the spiracular 
broad stripe of primrose-whitish ; the ground of the 
second segment is velvety black, traversed by dorsal 
and subdorsal lines of primrose-whitish ; of these lines 
on all the other segments the dorsal alone continues 
visible uninterruptedly towards the anal flap, as the 
subdorsal becomes from thence so suffused with black- 
ish-green that it seems lost on the anterior segments, 
and only the faintest trace of it can be detected as a 
green line with fine black edging on some of the 
hinder segments ; the tubercular dots are very small 
and black, only to be seen with the aid of a lens ; this 
stripe from one end of the larva to the other well 
separates the dark colouring of the upper surface from 
that of the deep bluish-green of the belly, which has 
three deeper green stripes on either side, the middle 
one of these the broadest, and followed closely by a 
narrower line of the same colour, and the middle of 



LYTHlilA PURPURARIA. 147 

the belly shows a paler central greenish line, and also 
those on either side, but only faintly. 

The spiracles are situated on the broad pale yellow- 
ish-white stripe ; they are white, delicately outlined 
with black. 

On the 23rd the larva began to shorten, and soon 
afterwards it entered the earth. 

N".B. — The proper food of this species is sheep's 
sorrel (Bumex acetosella). (William Buckler, August, 
1883; Note Book IV, 168.) 



ASPILATES GILVARIA. 

Plate OXXIII, fig. 6. 

I owe to the kindness of Mr. A. H. Jones the supply 
of eggs which enabled me to follow out the trans- 
formations of this species, after previous failures. On 
several former occasions I had reared larvae to half- 
growth, and then lost them, for want, as I supposed, of 
knowing the right food to give them ; and now, after 
this more successful attempt, I am still unable to 
speak with certainty about the food, whether there is 
any one plant to which the larva is more attached 
than to any others. 

I received the eggs on August 31st, 1869 ; the 
larvse hatched on September 12th; they attained a 
length of not quite the third of an inch before hyber- 
nation, having fed on Thymus serpylhcm, Achillea 
millefolium, Potentilla reptans, and Medicago lupulina. 
I kept them outdoors, and on Christmas Eve, as I was 
moving their flower-pot, a large one ten inches across 
and full of earth, to an open shed, I let it fall from a 
height of about three feet to the ground, where it 
broke to pieces, and its contents — earth and the plants 
on which the larvae had fed — lay scattered oyer about a 
square yard of the gravel path. Luckily I did not 
lose my temper, but — Mark Tapley-like, feeling quite 
jolly under the circumstances — I quietly got together 



148 ASPILATES GILVAEIA. 

all the earth and plants, sweeping the path clean with 
a soft brush ; and bringing all the mixture indoors, I 
spread it thinly over two large newspapers on the 
floor of my room, I next scattered a handful or two 
of blades of grass over the surface, arranged a cordon 
of grass all round the edges, and then left things to 
settle down. In the course of the evening, some three 
or four hours after, I got away from the Christmas 
family party, and lighting a short candle, lay down on 
the floor of my room to examine the blades of grass ; 
and in this way, much to my delight, I recovered 
twelve A. gilvaria out of about fifteen, besides all four 
larvse of Gnophos obscurata, which had shared their 
food and fortunes. I now re-planted their food in 
another pot, and turned them on to it again, appa- 
rently none the worse for their adventure. However, 
in the early spring many of them died off, and I was 
afraid I should once more have to record a failure ; but, 
fortunately, when the pining sickness had done its 
worst, there remained three larvse in good health ; 
these began to feed again, and now chose and finally 
fed up on Veronica serjoyllifolia, a plant or two of 
which had by chance grown up in their flower-pot; 
but for a long time they made little growth, for on 
the 14th of May, 1870, I find it noted that they were 
still very small ; after that date the growth was more 
rapid, and in June they moulted ; about the end of 
June they moulted again for the last time, and during 
July fed up to full growth ; early in August they 
changed to pupse, and the first moth came out on the 
19th of August. 

The egg of A. gilvaria, like those of others of the 
genus, is long brick-shaped, not ribbed, but pitted in 
rows from end to end, the little pits being irregular in 
size ; the colour at first yellowish-green, afterwards 
reddish. I have notes of two batches, in one of which 
the eggs were deposited touching one another end to 
end in a long string, but in the other somewhat en 
echelon, each egg overlapping about one-third of the 



ASPILATES GILVARIA. 149 

length of its neighbour as they were placed in a 
slanting row. 

The newly hatched larva is very pale brown on the 
back and belly, with a dark brown subdorsal line and 
a whitish stripe along the spiracles. When the larva 
is about one-third of an inch long, its colour is for the 
most part pale ochreous, the back showing paler, with 
a fine dorsal line of brown; there is also a brown 
subdorsal line, followed at an interval by a broader 
purplish-brown stripe. After this, when the larva 
begins to grow, the ochreous tint becomes colder, and 
so continues till after the last moult. 

When full-grown the length is about one and a 
quarter inches, the figure rather slender, cylindrical, 
being stoutest at the tenth segment, and thence 
tapering almost imperceptibly to the head, which is 
nearly as wide as the second segment, and is flattened 
and narrowed a little in front ; anal flap ending in two 
short points, whilst from under it projects a pair of 
longer and more slender points, slightly curved in- 
wards, and projecting quite one- sixteenth of an inch ; 
the skin smooth, but transversely wrinkled on the 
hinder part of each segment, and along the spiracles ; 
the larva when handled feels tough and stiff. Although 
the general colouring is pale ochreous, yet there are 
several lines and stripes to be distinguished, and the 
difficulty is to speak of these with sufficient clearness, 
and at the same time not give too strong an idea of 
them. The ground colour pale greyish-ochreous, with 
a pinkish tinge along the sides ; a broad paler stripe 
down the back, having a brownish dark line through 
its middle, most distinct on the front segments, and 
being edged with a fine brown line ; a broad, pale, 
greyish-buff subdorsal stripe, beginning on the head, 
and continued to the extremity of the anal points, 
bordered above by a fine brown line ; next a broad 
lateral stripe (or band), sprinkled closely with brown 
freckles, and bearing two fine pale lines, the lower of 
which is whitish throughout the four last segments, 



150 ASPILATES G1LVARIA. 

and on the hinder part of each of the others ; then the 
pale, puffed, spiracular ridge bearing the reddish- 
yellow spiracles ringed with brown ; under the ridge, 
just beneath each spiracle, is a longitudinal dark 
brown dash; belly greyish-ochreous with two faint 
dusky lines; the usual dots wide apart, blackish in 
colour; the lateral band ceases on the front of the 
thirteenth segment, leaving the anal flap and the long 
points pale. 

One of my larvae was rather darker than the others, 
with the ground of the back browner, and the lateral 
band formed of purplish-brown freckles and specks ; 
but even the darkest looked cold-tinted and pale. 

When at rest, the larva remains stretched out at 
full length, but curls up the front segments when 
disturbed, and if further annoyed drops from its 
food, and curls its whole body up tightly in the same 
plane, bringing the anal legs and flap tightly down on 
the inner coil, and in this position will allow itself to 
be trundled like a wheel. 

When about to change, it takes advantage of some 
small interstice between two bits of earth, or sticks or 
stones, and spinning a few threads, draws some small 
loose particles together to hide the opening. 

The pupa is long and slender ; the head, wing-cases, 
and last segment of the abdomen are very dark, 
shining brown; the rest of the abdomen of a pale 
tint of warm red-brown, with spots and transverse 
streaks of the darker colour. (John Hellins, July, 
1871 ; E.M.M., October, 1871, VIII, 116.) 



Abraxas grossulariata. 

Plate CXXIV, fig. 1. 

Dark Variety of the Larva. — On the 14th of June, 
1878, Mr. S. L. Mosley showed me examples of a re- 
markably dark form of this well-known larva, which he 
had received from Mr. J. E. Eobson, who informed him 



ABRAXAS GROSSULARIATA. 151 

that a colony of the form usually occurred a few miles 
north of Newcastle-on-Tyne. Mr. Mosley kindly gave 
me one of the larvse, and I preserved it. It differs 
from the strikingly marked usual form in being almost 
uniformly sooty-black ; there is no trace of the reddish 
lateral stripe below the spiracles ; and the yellow or 
cream-colour only shows a little on the second segment 
and on the ventral area as a narrow central stripe, 
interrupted, except between the legs and prolegs, at 
the segmental divisions. The only other markings 
are two small pale spots on the front of the fifth, sixth, 
seventh, eighth, and ninth segments, and laterally on 
the tenth and eleventh segments. The appearance 
altogether is so different from the usual form, that at 
first sight I had no idea what the larvse were ; and on 
placing my preserved specimen in the cabinet along 
with the broad black-bordered variety of the imago, it 
seemed to correspond with it exactly. Unfortunately 
for that theory, however, these black larvse at Newcastle 
only produce the most ordinary form of the imago. 
Mr. Eobson has since informed me that the larvae are 
not all sooty-black, but vary in every degree, — from the 
ordinary colour to uniformly black, even more so than 
the specimen I have described. Mr. Eobson has bred 
a great many of them, but never got a variety of the 
imago from them. (George T. Porritt, E.M.M., 
January and February, 1879, XV, 187 and 205.) 



LlGDIA ADUSTATA. 

Plate CXXIV, fig. 8. 

The eggs were laid during the third week in July. 
The caterpillars were hatched on the 1st of August. 
When full grown they usually rest in a straight position 
along the stem of their food-plant, Euonymus europseus 
(common spindle-tree), to which they have a marked 
resemblance in colour. 

The head is slightly larger than the second segment ; 



152 LIGDIA ADUSTATA. 

the face almost white, mottled with reddish-brown, and 
surrounded by a band of very dark brown, which 
becomes lighter in shade as it approaches the second 
segment; on each side of the head, in a line with the 
spiracles, and adjoining the second segment, is a patch 
of very dark brown. The second segment is smaller 
than the third, and the third smaller than the fourth, 
from which to the eleventh the body of the caterpillar 
is of uniform size, and then decreases. On the 
anterior dorsal area of the fifth, sixth, and seventh 
segments there is a small square brown patch, edged 
on both sides with white ; this marking occurs again, 
bub very indistinctly, on the tenth segment. The sides 
of the fifth and sixth segments are ornamented with an 
irregularly shaped patch of various shades of brown, 
interspersed with small white marks. The legs are 
brown ; the first pair of claspers, together with the 
skin-fold above them, are also brown, the latter 
variegated slightly with white ; the anal flap and 
second pair of claspers are tinged with the same colour. 
The spiracles, which are very indistinct, are white, 
edged with brown. 

The caterpillars descended to the earth about the 
25th of August, and spun slight cocoons just below 
the surface. (P. H. Jennings, September 7th, 1874; 
Ent., October, 1874, VII, 229.) 

Singular Variation of the Larva of Ligdia adustata. — 
The bright green or light apple-green variety of this 
larva I have seen described once or twice ; but the 
descriptions do not all give the same number and 
position of the red markings. Some larvaa figured and 
described by Mr. Buckler last autumn had — in 
addition to the brown head, red legs, and lateral 
blotches mentioned (after Gruenee) in the Manual — on 
the anterior part of each of the sixth, seventh, eighth, 
eleventh, and twelfth segments a bright red elongate 
spot, bordered on either side by a black and then a 
white line; they had also thread-like subdorsal and 
spiracular white lines. 



LIGDJA ADUSTATA. 153 

But the following variety, captured here (Exeter) 
by Mr. D'Orville, I have never seen mentioned before ; 
in fact, at first we took it to be a new species. The 
ground colour above is a grey-brown ; a broad 
ochreous-yellow dorsal stripe, widest in the centre of 
each segment, and contracted at the segmental 
divisions ; very thin subdorsal and spiracular white 
lines ; on the front of each of segments four, five, six, 
and seven are two dorsal white spots, and on each 
segment ten black dots ; belly and sides, for first five 
segments, are of the same colour as the back, but for 
the remainder are ochreous-yellow. The lateral 
blotches on the fifth, sixth, and seventh segments are 
dark brown, followed by smaller spots on the hinder 
segments ; the head also has a dark brown spot on 
each lobe. (John Hellins, April 6th, 1865; E.M.M., 
June, 1865, II, 16.) 



HYBERNIA LEUCOPHiEAEJA. 

Plate CXXV, fig. 2. 

Some Varieties of the Larva. — In February, 1863, 
Mr. H. Doubleday kindly sent me a batch of eggs ; 
these were at first light green in colour, afterwards 
changing to a bluish-black-green. 

The larvae were hatched on the 28th of March, being 
then dark dingy green in colour and short in figure ; 
they fed inside buds of oak, which I partially opened 
for them with a pin, and by the 14th of April they 
had become about a quarter of an inch in length, and 
were furnished with a few bristles ; all their dark 
colour was gone, and they were now of a very pale 
whitish-green. As they grew bigger their skin 
seemed to grow harder, as though to fit them for 
feeding exposed, and at last there appeared about 
four varieties. These Mr. Buckler has kindly figured, 
together with some other larvse captured at different 
times. 



154 HYBERNIA LEUCOPH^IARTA. 

When full-grown — about the end of May or 
beginning of June — they had somewhat of a square- 
built figure, being stoutish, and of uniform size 
throughout ; in fact, they can by no means be called 
elongate, although most of their congeners are well 
described by that word. 

The variety most commonly met with has the ground 
colour of a very pale yellowish-green, or very pale 
olive-green, with a yellowish dorsal line, double, but 
almost running into one at the segmental divisions, 
and a subdorsal line rather paler. Some specimens 
have in addition numerous dots of pale yellowish-white. 
This seems to be the variety described (from Guenee) 
in Stainton's Manual. 

The variety coming nearest to this is one which I 
never saw, except in the batch bred from the eggs sent 
me by Mr. Doubleday. It had the ground colour of a 
pale pea-green, with dorsal and subdorsal lines like 
the last, only on each of the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, 
and ninth segments it had a longish dash of dark 
brown immediately below the subdorsal line. 

The third variety was also peculiar to the brood 
from Epping. It had the ground colour of a very pale 
drab, dorsal and subdorsal lines pure white ; on each 
side of the second segment, behind the lobes of the 
head, was a blotch of dark brown ; down the back, in 
the centre of each segment, was a dark brown triple 
wedge-shaped mark, and at each segmental division a 
black spot ; the subdorsal line bordered below, 
throughout its length, with dark brown dashes. 

One might indicate several more varieties, but I 
shall include the rest under one, as they have the same 
markings, and differ chiefly in depth of colour. 

Ground colour yellowish-green, full green, sometimes 
dark olive ; dorsal and subdorsal lines varying also 
with the ground colour, in the darkest specimens 
becoming much suffused, and interrupted at the seg- 
mental divisions by a dark brown transverse band; 
second segment with the two large round dark spots ; 



HYBERNIA LEUCOPHjEARIA. 155 

on the back of each of the other segments a dark 
brown mark, compared by Mr. Buckler to two leaves 
pointing forward, with a short stem between them, 
and preceded by two black dots ; subdorsal lines 
bordered below with dark dashes. (John Hellins, 
April 13th, 1865 ; E.M.M., June, 1865, II, 16.) 



Hybernia aurantiaria. 
Plate CXXV, fig. 3. 

On November 6th, 1868, Mr. J. R. Wellman cap- 
tured three pairs of moths in copulation, and very 
kindly sent on to Mr. Buckler the eggs laid by the 
females during the next two or three days. The larva3 
were not hatched till just about the middle of March, 
1869 ; were fed by me on birch ; came to their full 
growth and spun up about the middle or end of May ; 
and the moths appeared November 4th to 13th. 

The egg is flattened and somewhat brick-shaped, 
but with one end more conical ; the shell is stoutly 
ribbed, and reticulated, its appearance under a lens 
reminding one of coarse basket-work ; the colour is at 
first green, afterwards puce, then reddish, with a long 
central blackish spot ; and lastly, just before the 
hatching, smoky. 

The newly hatched larvae are small in proportion to 
their full-grown bulk ; smooth, dark brown on the 
back, with a yellowish dorsal line, and a more distinct 
yellow spiracular line ; the head brown, a fine pale 
yellow transverse streak on the second segment ; the 
belly dusky. After the first moult the brown dis- 
appears, and the colour throughout becomes olive- 
green. The next moult results in a pale olive coat, 
with the middle of the back still paler; but after the 
third moult the back begins to show decidedly yellow 
again ; the sides are tinged with brown, and the 
spiracular line also recovers its yellow ; and from this 



156 HYBERNIA AURANTIARIA. 

time a nearer approach is made to the appearance 
exhibited at full growth. 

When full-grown the larva is rather over one inch 
and one-eighth in length, in shape moderately slender ; 
viewed from above, it appears of nearly uniform 
stoutness throughout, but viewed sideways the seg- 
ments seven to ten are rather stouter than the rest ; 
the head is broad, flattened in front, and rounded at 
the sides, so as to be equal in width to the second 
segment, which, together with the third and fourth, is 
a little flattened also ; the fifth is more cylindrical, 
and hence has the appearance of being a trifle thinner 
than the rest ; the skin is tough, furnished with a few 
bristles, and the back of the second segment is glossy, 
suggesting a sort of plate there ; a pair of rather con- 
spicuous warts on the twelfth segment. 

Probably there are variations more or less in the 
colouring, but the larvse I had were alike, and might 
be roughly described as being of a dark purplish-brown 
with yellow markings ; but to pick out the arrange- 
ment of the markings was no easy matter. The 
ground colour of the back was pale, dull, ochreous- 
yellow, and through it a number of fine brownish 
lines, not parallel throughout, but approaching and 
receding, so as to form a pattern ; of these, two very 
fine ones through the centre of the back, enclosing a 
thread of the pale ground ; on either side of this pair 
another darker brown line, and then again another 
wavy one, touching the broad, deep, purplish stripe 
which occupied the side from the head to the twelfth 
segment, on which it mounted up the back, and meet- 
ing the stripe from the other side, formed there a A 
mark pointing forwards, and bearing on it the warts 
of the same colour ; below the broad stripe a pale 
yellow thread, and below this a blackish-purple 
thread ; in the spiracular region, the front of each seg- 
ment sulphur-yellow, the hinder part dull ochreous ; 
here also could be seen indications of two fine purplish 
lines, showing at the beginning and end of each 



HYBERNIA AURANTIARIA. 157 

segment, but leaving a clear space for the black 
spiracles ; another line of the same colour below, 
thickening under each spiracle ; the belly dark 
purplish-brown, with a central pale yellowish stripe, 
opening widest and enclosing a short black streak in 
the middle of each segment, and edged with black ; a 
very fine pale yellow line also through the dark 
purplish-brown of each side of the belly ; the head 
horny, and dull reddish in colour, with a transverse 
band of dark greyish-brown across the face ; legs 
and hinder part of anal segment a dull brownish - 
ochreous. 

The cocoon is formed of brownish silk inside, slight 
but close in texture, and outside of fine particles of 
earth, and placed just below the surface. 

The pupa is stoutish in front, tapering rapidly behind, 
ending in a stout spike with two fine points ; in the 
male the wing-cases are short and the antenna-cases 
distinct, showing pectinations ; the skin smooth and 
shining, reddish-brown in colour. (John Hellins, 
July, 1871 ; E.M.M., September, 1871, VIII, 90.) 



ANISOPTERYX iESCULARIA. 

Plate CXXVI, fig. 1. 

On the 3rd of April, 1872, I received from Mr. 
W. J. Skelton, of Faversham, eggs of this species. 
Some of the young larvae had emerged on the way, 
and the remainder of the eggs hatched immediately. 
The larvae grew rapidly on hawthorn, and by the 
middle of May were going down. 

The full-grown caterpillar may be described as 
follows : 

Length about an inch, slender, cylindrical, and of 
uniform width throughout ; head globular, slightly 
broader than the second segment ; skin soft and 
smooth. Ground colour bright green, strongly tinged 
with yellow; head uniformly green. A dark green 



158 ANISOPTERYX ZESCTJLARIA. 

line, very narrowly edged with grey, forms the dorsal 
stripe ; the subdorsal and spiracular lines are greyish- 
white ; and between the subdorsal and spiracular lines 
is a very fine pale grey line. The segmental divisions 
are yellow, and the spiracles black. Ventral surface 
uniformly bright green, with the segmental divisions 
yellow. 

By the end of May all the larva3 had gone down, 
and the imagos from them are now emerging ; nine- 
teen males had emerged when the first female put in 
an appearance. (George T. Porritt, March 11th, 
1873; E.M.M., April, 1873, IX, 272.) 

Mr. J. G. Ross, of Bathampton, kindly sent me a 
batch of eggs of A. aescularia on the 3rd of April, 
1877, a portion of which was at once dispatched to 
Mr. C. Y. Riley ; with me the larvae did not hatch till 
the 25th, while Mr. Riley, in a letter dated the 23rd, 
said the parcel had reached him with the larvse hatched 
and dead. I suppose the temperature in the steamship 
was higher than in my room, and expedited the hatch- 
ing. My larvse ate oak, and were full-fed during the 
first week in June, but a week later again I beat a few 
from an oak tree, some of which were not full-fed for 
several days after. 

The female moth seems to deposit her eggs in 
patches (there were more than fifty together in one 
patch sent me by Mr. Ross) ; and they are arranged 
very closely and evenly, touching one another, firmly 
cemented together, and covered over with the long 
fibre-like scales from the maternal anal tuft ; the egg 
is oblong, standing upright on end, almost cylindrical, 
but somewhat squared by being squeezed closely 
against the other eggs with which it stands, the upper 
end convex, the lower more flattened ; the shell smooth 
and glossy; the colour olive-brown, browner on the 
top, without much change. 

The larva escapes by eating a round hole through 
the top of the egg, and is at first yellow in colour, the 
internal vessels showing faintly blackish down the 



ANISOPTERYX iESCULABIA. 159 

back, and there is a fine blackish subdorsal line; 
the usual dots very small, black, and bearing pale 
yellowish short bristles; at first there is no appear- 
ance of feet on the ninth segment. As the larva 
feeds, the middle portion of the body becomes greener, 
while the head and tail are more yellowish, but after a 
little growth the green spreads throughout. When the 
larva is almost half-grown it plainly shows some rudi- 
ments of legs on the ninth segment. 

When full-grown the larva is rather over an inch in 
length, very even in bulk ; the head flattish, but with 
rounded outline to the lobes ; under the anal flap are 
two short, blunt points ; on the ninth segment a pair 
of feet, perfectly formed, but useless for walking, 
being about one-sixteenth of the size of the pair on 
the tenth segment. The general appearance of the 
colouring is yellowish-green, owing to the number of 
green and yellow lines which run intermixed down the 
body; the dorsal line is a pale yellowish thread, 
running between two dark green lines, darkest at the 
segmental divisions, and themselves again edged with 
pale yellowish; then on a pale yellowish-green ground 
are some pale yellow freckles ; then comes the sub- 
dorsal line, yellowish, edged with decided green ; then 
more yellow freckles ; then a waved, rather broken, 
supra-spiracular line of yellow, edged above thickly 
but irregularly with green, reaching highest at the 
beginning and end of each segment, and lowest just in 
the middle above each spiracle ; the spiracular region 
broadly and decidedly green, each black-ringed spiracle 
with a small yellow halo (and in some individuals 
behind each spiracle is a conspicuous spot of darker 
green); the subspiracular is a stouter undulating line 
of deeper yellow, edged in parts with dark green ; the 
belly rather bluish- green ; the head greenish with a 
tinge of very pale brown. 

The cocoon is neatly formed, of long oval shape, and 
of tough texture, being lined with close-woven 
yellowish silk, and covered with fine earth ; in fact, it 



160 ANISOPTERYX ^SCULAEIA. 

looks like a little knob of earth ; it is about three- 
eighths of an inch long, and a quarter of an inch broad. 
The pupa is rather over five-sixteenths of an inch 
long, very plump and full, being for the greater part 
of its length nearly an eighth of an inch across ; the 
eye-cases prominent, the abdomen tapering off quickly, 
but with a blunt end, on which is a flat blackish knob, 
furnished with two short widely diverging sharp 
spines ; the colour golden-brown, tinged with greenish 
on the back ; the eye-cases, etc., more brown ; the skin 
finely punctured, but glossy. (John Hellins, Sep- 
tember 11th, 1877; E.M.M., October, 1877, XIV, 113.) 



ChEIMATOBEA BIIUMATA. 

Plate CXXYI, fig. 2. 

Once more I have looked at and figured this ubiqui- 
tous larva of the month of May, and again noticed the 
variations of the ground colouring, but that the lines 
of yellow more or less pale are constant in their 
arrangement, and that the spiracles are red of a 
brownish kind, and always situated actually on the 
yellow line where it is widest. (William Buckler, 1881 ; 
Note Book IV, 12.) 

Cheimatobia boreata. 
Plate CXXVI, fig. 3. 

Two or three full-grown larvas on birch were sent 
me on the 8th of June, 1881, by the Rev. J. Hellins, 
and they have again shown me how distinct this larva 
is from its congener, G. brumata. For not only is the 
proportion more thick and stumpy, and the head 
more or less black in 0. boreata, but the spiracles are 
black and just above the yellow line, and the anterior 
legs are also black. These are good distinctions, that 



OHEIMATOBLA BOEEATA. 161 

I was much struck with when I reared a small brood 
from eggs in 1868. (William Buckler, June, 1881; 
Note Book IV, 11.) 



Oporabia dilutata. 
Plate OXXVI, fig. 4. 

On the 7th of May, 1881, 1 received from Rev. John 
Hellins nine larvas of this species, feeding on elm, 
hawthorn, and other trees, all in their last coats and 
nearly mature, two of them entering the earth next 
day. 

The larva is seven-eighths of an inch in length, 
about an inch when full-grown ; it is stout in propor- 
tion, almost uniform in substance throughout; the 
head is rounded, and fitting partly within the second 
segment ; the body above appears very cylindrical, 
though viewed sideways it tapers a little from the 
head to the fourth segment in the muscular base of 
each anterior leg increasing progressively, and also 
tapering a little from the eleventh segment to the 
thirteenth ; the segments are moderately well defined 
on the back, rather more deeply cut and more plump 
on the belly ; the ventral and anal legs well developed. 

In colour the head is of a lightish green, smooth, 
and but slightly glistening ; the colour of the back as 
far as the spiracular region is a more or less bright 
velvety green, becoming yellowish-green near each 
segmental division, the fold itself yellowish ; the sub- 
dorsal region bears two equidistant, pale, rather sinuous 
fine lines, but little broken, either whitish or yellowish, 
but extremely faint; the tubercular dots are whitish 
or yellowish-greenish, and conspicuous when they are 
surrounded with deep rose-pink or crimson ; the 
anterior pair of the trapezoidals are often within 
markings of one of those colours about the middle of 
the back of each segment, where relatively a blotch of 
the same kind of red appears between the lowest of 

VOL. VII. 11 



162 OPORABIA DXLUTATA. 

the equidistant lines and the spiracular whitish ridge 
which runs through the lower part of the blotch ; this 
ridge is rather more distant from the lower line than 
the two lines are from each other, and continues to 
the beginning of the anal flap. The spiracles are 
orange, finely outlined with dark crimson; the situa- 
tion of each is within the blotch, and relieved by a 
small halo of green just above the whitish ridge, which 
from inflation is more noticeable ; the colour of the 
belly is of a blue and paler green, blending to white in 
the middle, whereby the three ventral white lines show 
but indistinctly. The deep rose-pink or crimson dorsal 
stripe is so interrupted that it shows only about mid- 
way on each segment, and is intersected either with one 
or with two short transverse stripes ; if with two the 
shorter is in front ; very often the area they occupy 
is faintly tinged with light pinkish ; in some examples 
the dark pink shows only as a smooth interrupted 
dorsal stripe, more or less faint or nearly obsolete, 
and occasionally mere spots, but when present it is 
always strongest on the penultimate segment; in 
others the pale yellowish or whitish fine lines are so 
faint as to be scarcely distinguished, as are sometimes 
also the tubercular clots, when the larva appears to be 
of a plain velvety green above and a whitish-green 
beneath, though still a trace of the whitish or yel- 
lowish spiracular ridge remains, especially on the 
posterior segments (two magnified segments with 
fig. 1, 1881, show all needful particulars). 

The moths from the foregoing larvas emerged on 
October 11th, November 4th, 10th, and 13th, 1881, 
all $ with the exception of one <$ . They were of a 
very light grey type, the S the lightest. I sent a 
batch of eggs to Mr. Hellins. 

On turning out the pot the cocoons were found to 
be about half an inch long, of a blunt oval general 
figure, composed externally of grains of earth, and 
smoothly lined with dirty grey silk inside. 

The pupa is of a dumpy shape, being stout in pro- 



OPOltABIA DILUTATA. 163 

portion to its length, which is no more than from 
three-eighths to seven-sixteenths of an inch ; the 
abdomen tapers rather abruptly towards the tip, 
which bears a single tapering spike which at its fine 
point has two most minute diverging pairs of hook- 
lets, affording a firm hold on the lining of the cocoon. 
The pupal surface is moderately smooth and glossy, 
and of brownish-red colour, darkest on the abdomen. 
The larvse above described were reared by Mr. 
Hellins from eggs he received from Mr. C. G. Barrett 
at Pembroke. (William Buckler, October, 1881 ; 
Note Book IV, 62.) 



Oporabia filigrammaria. 
Plate OXXVI, fig. 5. 

On the 27th May, 1881, I received five larvae from 
the Rev. John Hellins, which came from Mr. H. Kay, 
of Bury, Lancashire. They were on heather and 
weeping willow. 

They were about half an inch long, of uniform 
cylindrical substance. The head and plate on the 
second segment are brown, the head marked with 
darker brown on each lobe. The body is velvety, 
rather olive deep green, with a darker green dorsal 
stripe, a subdorsal line of bright canary-yellow, 
followed below closely by another much finer and 
thinner ragged line of the same yellow, and at a 
greater distance below by a spiracular line of paler 
bright yellow, equal in thickness to the subdorsal line, 
especially on the last four segments ; the dorsal stripe 
is very faintly edged with yellowish, especially at the 
beginning of each segment; the tubercular warty dots 
are pale yellowish-greenish, each with a short bristle. 
The same dark green of the body extends broadly 
below the spiracular line, and is followed beneath by a 
broken stripe of faint pale dirty yellowish or whitish; 



164 0P0RABIA FlLIGRAMMARIA. 

the belly itself is less pale but whitish-green, quite a 
contrast with that of the back and "sides. 

On the 29th I received two more larvse a little 
larger, about three-quarters of an inch long, of a rich 
dark olive-brownish velvety green, with bright yellow 
ragged lines, the upper two lines deeper yellow than 
the spiracular line ; and on the 7th of June I received 
from Mr. Kay fourteen more larvse, most of them 
very small, and all obtained from heather of a darker 
hue than this plant is in the south of England ; and 
although they fed quite greedily on sallow, weeping 
willow, etc., yet they preferred to retire to the heather 
until they were nearly full-fed ; with which plant their 
colouring was in harmony, and it is noticeable that 
after dieting on sallow their colouring became per- 
ceptibly lighter than before. Many of them died on 
the earth in an aborted pupa state, others in the larva 
state shrivelled, one was ichneumoned, a few spun a 
few threads amongst twigs of heather and pupated 
within them, and a few entered the earth and therein 
made slight cocoons, but holding tolerably well 
together. 

Five moths in all were bred, viz. one S and two 
? s on the 21st of August, one $ on the 24th, and 
one S on the 8th of September. 

The pupa is three- eighths of an inch long, of rather 
dumpy figure, but not otherwise remarkable, the abdo- 
minal segments tapering to the tip, which is furnished 
with a small tapering spike having two minute 
diverging hooks at the fine extremity, and its colour 
is very dark brown with rather a glossy surface. 

In 1882 I received on the 26th February, from the 
Rev. J. Hellins six larva3 from eggs laid by one of the 
? 0. filigrammaria mentioned above that I had for- 
warded to him at the time they were laid on leno. 
These larvse were of different sizes, large and small, 
reared on rose-leaves and whitethorn. The largest 
one at this date (February 26th) was 18 mm. long and 
in its last stage, extremely dark velvety olive-brown, 



OPORABIA FILTGEAMMARIA. 165 

wliicli later on became rich olive-green, and it was 
full-fed before the middle of March. 

Two others of the length of 15 mm. (on February 
26th) were stoutish, and uniformly so, with each lobe 
of the head brown, the anal plate and anal legs 
brownish, the dorsal line rather darker green than the 
bright, deep green of the ground ; the dorsal line is 
only relieved plainly on each side with yellow just at 
the anterior of each segment, and beyond only indis- 
tinctly so ; the subdorsal line, the thinner line below, 
and the spiracular line are bright primrose-yellow ; 
the tubercular dots are of the ground colour, now 
almost indistinguishable ; the spiracular line inflated, 
the spiracles round, blackish. 

Two others, 10 mm. long (on February 26th), of 
uniform thickness, were of rich deep green colour, 
face green and lobes of the head dark brown ; a 
darker green dorsal line between two lines of greenish- 
yellow ; the subdorsal, the festooned line, and the 
spiracular line bright, pale yellow, the tubercular dots 
yellow, the middle of the belly paler green ; when 
grown to 12 mm. they lay up to moult. 

One 5 mm. long (on February 26th) of uniform, 
moderate stoutness, had the head black, a narrow, 
dark brown plate across the second segment, and on 
the anal flap and on the hinder halves of the anal legs ; 
deepish green body ; subdorsal line, a fainter line 
below it, and the spiracular line of yellow, which last 
edges the side of the anal plate ; it lay up for moulting 
on the 28th February. 

The above all began to be full-fed from the middle 
of March at different dates up to the 26th, when the 
last ceased feeding. 

No moths resulted from any of them, the pupae 
having dried up. (William Buckler, March, 1882 ; 
Note-book IV, 64 and 84.) 



166 LARENTIA C/ESIATA. 

LiARENTIA C2ESIATA. 

Plate OXXVII, fig. 3. 

[The following description was given by Mr. Hellius 
for comparison with L. ruficinctata.'] 

Some years ago I reared Larentia csesiata from the 
egg, but preserved no record of the egg, or of the 
young larva. At that time I bred the moths in the 
end of May and beginning of June, but I do not know 
for certain whether this shows there are two broods, 
or only that the moth has a long flight ; Mr. J. Batty, 
who has more than once sent me the larvao, tells me 
he believes there is but one brood of moths, most 
abundant in July ; anyhow, from these the larvas are 
hatched in August, feed chiefly on whortleberry, but 
will also eat ling, hybernate, and do not feed up till 
May, some even holding on till June. 

The larva when full-grown is seven-eighths of an 
inch long, not so stumpy to look at as L. ruficinctata, 
more cylindrical, tapering less rapidly to the head, 
which, however, is small and rounded; the bristles 
emitted by the dots shorter than in L. ruficinctata. 
In colour there are two varieties known to me : 
1. Ground colour on back deep red-chocolate; a 
dorsal row of seven As pointing forward on 
segments five to eleven, with imperfect ones 
on the fourth and twelfth, much resembling 
those of L. ruficinctata, being outlined with 
dark brown, and the interior being also yellow 
in front and pink behind, but they are both 
more extensive in size and brighter in tint ; 
the segmental divisions are tinged with green; 
the dorsal line is almost continuous, but 
varying in colour, being brownish-red or 
more pinkish, in agreement with the sur- 
rounding skin ; at the segmental divisions it 
is bordered by two short whitish dashes, as 
are also two pairs of fine lines which run on 



LARENTIA CiESIATA. 



167 



either side of it, so that at the divisions there 
is quite a marked feature in these white 
dashes ; the spiracular line is clear and dis- 
tinct, in colour white or pale yellow ; the 
spiracles are black; the head dark reddish 
freckled, with greenish ; the belly dark brown, 
2. Ground colour a deep bright green, dorsal 
markings very bright by contrast; head as 
before ; belly full green ; spiracular line 
white or pale yellow; anal flap and anal legs 
purplish. This is a very beautiful form of 
the larva, and seems to be developed at the 
last moult ; an example now feeding was 
quite reddish-brown till it moulted. 
The pupa, enclosed in a slight cocoon, but appa- 
rently more complete than that of L. ruficinctata, is 
about half an inch long, cylindrical, and rather slender , 
the eyes rather prominent ; the skin very glossy ; in 
colour almost olive on the wings ; golden on the abdo- 
men ; the eyes, abdominal rings, and end of tail dark 
brown. 

I should much like to hear some decisive statements 
on the question of this species being single or double 
brooded. (John Hellins, 18th May, 1875; E.M.M., 
June, 1875, XII, 6.) 



Larentia elavicinctata. 

Plate CXXVII, fig. 4. 

I was very glad to receive eggs of Larsntia rujicinc- 
tata in August, 1874, from Mr. Carrington, and in 
March, 1875, having failed to bring mylarvse through 
the winter, I was still more glad to have my loss made 
good by Mrs. Hutchinson ; and I am now able to give 
a tolerably full account of this species, and to compare 
some of its stages with L. csesiata. The result of this 
comparison will be to show that they stand very much 



168 LAKENTIA FLAVICINCTATA. 

in the same relation to one another as exists in the 
genus Melanijope between M. rivata and M. subtristata. 
I received eggs of L. ruficinctata on August 15th; 
the larvae hatched on the 21st, and at first fed well on 
flowers of various stonecrops and saxifrages, but when 
the flowers were past, would not touch the leaves; 
however, Mrs. Hutchinson found that the leaves of 
Saxifraga hypnoides (a species I could not obtain) 
were readily eaten, and on that plant kept her larvae 
through the winter, and on February 19th she kindly 
sent me some of them, then just moulting for the last 
time; these spun up during the last week of March 
and the first ten days of April, and the first moth came 
out on the 17th of May; from the moths of this first 
flight the larvae are found full-fed (and have been sent 
to Mr. Buckler) in July ; and the second flight of 
moths is out at the beginning of August ; L. ruficinc- 
tata, therefore, is double brooded, one brood going 
through all its transformations in the period between 
the middle of May and the beginning of August, and 
the other taking up the rest of the twelve months, 
chiefly in the larval stage. 

The egg is rather long-oval in outline, full, with one 
end blunted ; the shell pitted all over with irregular 
reticulation ; the colour (when I received the eggs 
from Mr. Carrington) light bright red, afterwards 
dingy. 

The young larva is pale olive, with broad dorsal and 
finer waved subdorsal darker lines ; head shining 
black, the blackish dots each set with a long bristle, 
somewhat clubbed at the tip ; in about a month (with 
the second brood, that is) the dorsal pattern begins to 
appear, the colour otherwise being dark brownish ; 
the larvae that came to me in spring were about half- 
grown, with the dorsal pattern well developed. 

The full-grown larva is six-eighths of an inch long, 
in figure thick-set, tapering from the fifth segment 
to the head, which is small and rounded, and taper- 
ing, but not so much, from the tenth to the tail; 



LAUENTIA FLAVICINCTATA. 169 

when viewed sideways, rather flattened ; divisions 
well marked ; skin wrinkly ; the usual dots distinct 
as minute raised warts with longish hairs. In colour 
there are three varieties known to me : 

1. Ground colour on back dark purplish-grey, 

with a dorsal row of seven As pointing 
forwards on segments 5 — 11, and some- 
times an eighth and ninth A — but small 
and imperfect — on segments four and three ; 
these marks are outlined by very dark 
velvety brown lines, and of the space en- 
closed by them the apex is pale yellow, 
and the base pale rose-red, the dorsal line 
appearing here as a short stripe of deeper 
opaque red ; on segments two, three, 
twelve, and thirteen the dorsal line is 
continuous and dark reddish ; the head 
darker than the ground, and freckled ; the 
belly dull reddish-brown ; the spiracular 
region tinged with ochreous ; the small 
round spiracles blackish. 

2. Ground colour rather subdued green, with 

the dorsal markings rather brighter than 
in 1. ; the head freckled with brownish ; 
belly pale green ; spiracular line ochreous. 

3. Ground colour pale olive-green, but varied 

with a suffusion of dark rich red on either 
side of the back, most intense where it 
touches the pale yellowish spiracular line ; 
the belly dull greenish. 
The pupa, enclosed in a very slight cocoon on the 
surface of the soil, is barely half an inch long, 
smooth and cylindrical, tapering off gradually to 
the tail, which ends in a spike with a fine forked 
spine; the skin very glossy; the colour pale golden- 
brown, darker towards the tail. (John Hellins, May 
18th, 1875; E.M.M., June, 1875, XII, 5.) 



170 LARENTU OLIVATA. 

LAEENTIA OLIVATA. 

Plate CXXVII, fig. 6. 

Several years ago I bred this species, but took 
scarcely any notes of it, and was therefore very 
glad to receive from Mrs. Wollaston, at the end of 
August, 1873, some eggs which she had obtained 
from a moth taken at Teiomruouth. 

The larvse hatched, but not all at once, during the 
second week in September, and were kept outdoors 
on a growing plant of Galium mollugo ; the winter 
being mild, they continued to feed slowly all the 
time, and seemed to be content with withered leaves 
when green ones failed them ; by the last week in 
April they were full-fed, and most of them became 
pupae during the first week in May. The larva of 
this species, like that of L. pectinitaria (miaria), is 
extremely sluggish, as might, indeed, be concluded 
from a glance at its form. 

The egg of L. olivata is rather small for the 
moth, of an oval form, plump ; the shell glistening, 
with no raised reticulation, but yet covered with the 
little facets, as it were, which should be enclosed by 
reticulation ; colour at first pale straw ; then a 
palish vermilion-red ; at last turning to a pale livid 
hue. 

The young larva is pale vermilion-red, with blackish 
head, but this gay colour does not last long, soon 
giving way to the dingy appearance worn for the 
remainder of this stage, and the description of the 
full-grown larva will suffice for it altogether. 

The full-grown larva is rather over five-eighths of 
an inch in length, very stumpy in figure, rugose and 
warty, with segmental divisions distinct, head not so 
wide as the second segment, with the lobes rounded, 
although narrow, the front and hind segments tapering 
very slightly. 

The ground colour is a pale ochreous, mottled with 



LARENTIA 0LIVATA. 171 

deeper brown, and marked longitudinally with lines of 
darker brown ; the dorsal line begins blackish on the 
second segment, becomes dark brown after that, and is 
continuous up to the fourth ; then it becomes a series 
of dashes on the front part of each segment up to the 
tenth ; thence again it becomes continuous; on either 
side of the dorsal line come a subdorsal and lateral 
similar line, continuous to the end of the fourth, and 
from the tenth to the thirteenth, but on the intermediate 
segments interrupted and turned aside by the warts ; 
in this manner the subdorsal line is pushed in towards 
the dorsal on the middle of each segment, giving some- 
what the look of a curved X, only that the limbs of the 
letter do not touch ; the lower or lateral dark line is 
also waved in its course by similar obstructions ; the 
usual dots are large tubercular warts of the ground 
colour, and furnished with stiff bristles ; and on 
segments 6 to 9 there are, besides, pairs of con- 
spicuous, transverse, oval warts paler than the ground ; 
the spiracles are inconspicuous, being small and 
blackish ; the head brownish with dusky freckles, and 
set with bristles ; the belly more mottled than the back, 
and with traces of a central, and a pair of lateral, 
dusky lines. 

In its usual position of rest the larva keeps the 
head and thoracic segments all humped together. 

The cocoon is very slight, formed on the surface of 
the soil, under a leaf or stem for covering, and with 
particles of earth, etc., drawn in. 

The pupa is three-eighths of an inch long, the thorax 
swelling above the line of the back, the eyes somewhat 
projecting, the abdomen tapering off gradually, and 
ending in a small blunt spike furnished with two 
large and six small spines with curled tips, by which 
the pupa is attached to the silk of the cocoon ; the 
colour is bright reddish, the abdomen deeper reddish, 
the spike dark brown. (John Hellins, June 2nd, 
1874 ; E.M.M., September, 1874, XI, 86.) 



172 



PARASITES. 



The following list of parasites, bred from larvae or 
pupa3 of the species included in the present volume, 
has been kindly prepared by Mr. G. C. Bignell, F.E.S. 



has been kindly prep 
— G. T. P. 



Host. 



Parasite. 



Ourapteryx 

caria 
Ellop la fasciar la 



sambu-y^ Apanteles formosus Wesra. 
Microgaster alvearius Spin. 



Selenia illunaria 



,, lunaria 

Oclontopera bldeniaia. 



Limneria geniculata Grav. 
Limneria ruficincta Grav. 



Crocallis elinguaria.. 

Ennomos alniaria 

(tiliaria) 
Himera pennaria .... 



Phigalia pllosaria 

Biston hirtaria 

Amphidasis prodro 
maria 



Amphidasis betularia. 



Casinaria tenuiventris Grav. . 
Phseogenes stimulator Grav. . 

Banchus pictus Fab 

Apanteles juniper atie Bunch. . 

Apanteles difficilis Nees 

Apanteles caberse Marsh 

Apanteles fulvlpes Halid 

Ichneumon ruficeps Grav 

Ichneumon cyanivenlris Wesm. 

Ophion luteum L 

Paniscus virgatus Fourc 

fMesochorus plagiatus Thorns. .. 

Apanteles juniperatse Botich. < 

Meteorus chrysophthalmus Nees 

Meteorus deceptor Wesm 

Apanteles juniperatse Bouch. ... 

Meteorus deceptor Wesm 

Pimpla instigator Fab 



By whom bred. 



Paniscus virgatus Fourc 

Campoplex oxyacanthse Boie. 

Meteorus deceptor Wesm 

Apanteles juniperatse Bouch. 

Apanteles fulvipes Halid 

Apanteles difficilis Nees , 

Campoplex mixtus Grav 

Campoplex mixtus Grav 

Limneria carbonaria Brischk. 
XMesochorus formosus Bridgm. 

Apanteles difficilis Nees 

Campoplex pugillator L 



G. 0. Bignell. 
— . Winkley. 

R. South. 

Mrs. 

Hutchinson. 

H. W. Barker. 

H. W. Barker. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

G. G. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

J. Gardner. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 

J. Hellins, 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. G. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
W. H. 

Harwood. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell 
G. G. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 



* The cocoon made by the <$ of this species is at the end of a long 
stiff footstalk, and unlike any other cocoon I have seen ; that of the $ 
is of the usual Apanteles form, which I obtained from Tseniocampa 
stabilis. 

f Hyperparasite on Apanteles juniperatse. 

J Hyperparasite on Apanteles difficilis. 



PARASITES. 



173 



Host. 



Awvphidasis betularia 
(continued) 



Hemerophila abrup- 

taria 
Cleora gldbraria 



Parasite. 



Apanteles dijjicilis JSTees .... 
Apanteles juniperatse Bouch. 
Pimpla turionellse L 



„ lichenaria 

Boarmia repandata . , 



,, rhomboidaria 
,, roboraria . 

Tephrosia extersaria. 

Gnoplws obscurata.. . . 



Pseudoterpyia cytisaria 

Geometra papilionaria 

Iodis lactearia 

Hemithea thymiaria. . . 



Ephyra omicronaria. 
Cabera pusaria 



Corycia temerata 
Msesia belgiaria... 
Aspilates citraria 



Microgaster minutus Reinh... ] 

Apanteles octonarius Ratzeb. ... 
Anomalon perspicuum Wesm,.., 
Apanteles vitripennis Halid 

Microgaster alvearius Spin < 

Microgaster jlavipes Halid 

Apanteles vitripennis Halid 

Limner ia carbonaria Brisch. .. 

Ichneumon jugatus Grav 

Limneria notata Grav 

Apanteles bicolor Nees 

Limneria tristis Grav 

Apanteles abjectus Marsh 



By whom bred. 



^Apanteles immunis Halid... 

Macrocentrus abdominalis 

Apanteles glomeratus L. .. 



Fab 



Apanteles rubripes Halid 

Meteorus versicolor Wesm 

Mesochorus pictilis Holmg... 
f Apanteles caberse Marsh 

Anomalon clandestinum Grav. 

Casinaria tenuiventris Grav. 

Limneria obscurella Holing. 

Apanteles popularis Halid 

Zele discolor Wesm 

Apanteles caber se Marsh 

Campoplex pugillator L 

Casinaria claviventris Holmg. 
%Apanteles fraternus Reinh 



Abraxas grossulariata. 



Ichneumon trilineatus Gmel. ... 
Paniscus cephalotes Holmg 



Casinaria vidua Grav. 



Mesochorus fulgurans Hal. 



* From half-grown larva. 

f Solitary parasites on Geometrse. 

% Twenty-six parasites from one larva. 



W. H. 

Harwood. 

W. H. 

Harwood. 

B. A. Bower. 

G. C. Bignell, 
E. A. Fitch. 
J. E. Robson. 
E. At more. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell, 
G. F.Mathew. 
G. C. Bignell. 
T. R. Billups. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 

Mrs. 

Hutchinson. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

J. Arkle, 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
T. A. Chapman. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. T. Porritt. 
W. H. 
Harwood. 
G. 0. Bignell. 

T. W. Hall. 

G. 0. Bignell, 

0. Fenn, 

T. W. Hall. 

G. C. Bignell, 

0. Fenn, 

T. W. Hall. 



174 



PAEASITES. 



Host. 



A braxas grossidariata 
(continued) 



Parasite. 



Lomaspilis marginata. 

Hybernia rupicapraria 

„ leucophxaria. 

,, progemmaria 



defoliaria 



Anisopteryx sescularia 



Cheimatobia brumata 



Oporabia dilutata 



Mesochorus sericans Curt 

Mesochorus aciculatus Bridgm.. 
* Mesochorus graniger Thorns. .., 

Mesochorus fuscicomis Brisch ... 

Apanteles glomeratus L 

Apanteles rubripes Halid 

Apanteles callidus Halid 

Apanteles limbatus Marsh 

Exorista vulgaris Fallen 

J Amner ia unicincta Grav. 

Campoplex erythrogaster Foerst 

Meteorus pulchricornis Wesm. . . , 

Apanteles immunis Halid 

■fHemiteles areator Panz 

Casinaria tenuiventris Grav. ... 

Limneria erucator Grav , 

Limneria bicingulata Grav 

Limneria mcesta Grav 

Limneria clausa Brisch 

Mesochorus semirufus Holmg 

Apanteles formosus Wesm 

Apanteles immunis Halid 

Limneria mcesta Grav 

Apanteles salebrosus Marsh 

Apanteles solitarius Ratz 

Macrocentrus abclominalis Fab.. 

Agrypon tenuicorne Grav 

Cymodusa cruentata Grav 

Sagaritis incisa Bridgm 



Larentia flavicinctata. 



miana. 



Meteorus pulchricornis Wesm. . . . 

Limneria crassiuscida Grav.. 

Apanteles immunis Halid 

Meteorus pulchricornis Wesm.. . . 

Apanteles salebrosus Marsh 

Apanteles immunis Halid 

Meteorus pidchricornis Wesm. ... 

Lissonota anomala Holmg. ... j 

Apanteles fulvipes Halid 

Microgaster marginatum Nees . . . 



Bv whom bred. 



G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G, 0. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bigne 1 !. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
Mrs. 

F. Nor gate. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
J. Hellins. 

W. Buckler. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell, 

J. Hellins. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bicrnell. 



* Hyperparasite on Exorista vulgaris (Dipteron). 
f Hyperparasite. 



INDEX. 



Abietaria, Boarmia 
Abruptaria, Hemeropbila . 
Adustata, Ligdia . 
iEscularia, Anisopteryx 157, 
Alniaria, Ennomos 
Atomaria, Fidonia 
Aurantiaria, Hybernia . 
Auroraria, Hyria 



PAG E 

20 
173 
151 
174 
172 
140 
155 

67 



Bajularia, Phorodesma . 56 

Beigiaria, Moesia . . . 173 

Betularia, Ampkidasis . . 172 

Bidentata, Odontopera. . 172 

Bisetata, Acidalia . . 91 

Biundularia, Tepkrosia . 37 

Blomeri, Astkena . . 75 

Boreata, Ckeimatobia . . 160 

Brumata, Ckeimatobia. 160, 174 

Brunneata, Fidonia . . 141 

Csesiata, Larentia . . 166 

Candidata, Astkena . . 71 
Cinctaria, Boarmia . . 24 
Circellata, Acidalia 
Citraria, Aspilates 
Clatkrata, Strenia 
Consoiiaria, Tepkrosia 
Consortaria, Boarmia . 
Oontiguaria, Acidalia . 
Crepuscularia, Tepkrosia 
Cytisaria, Pseudoterpna 

Dealbata, Scoria . 
Defoliaria, Hybernia . 
Degeneraria, Acidalia . 
Dilutata, Oporabia . 161, 
Dolobraria, Eurymene 



106 

173 

137 

34 

32 

94 

35 

173 

143 
174 
127 
174 
3 





PAGE 


Elinguaria, Crocallis 


. 172 


Emarginata, Acidalia . 


. 130 


Emutaria, Acidalia 


. 124 


Exantkemata, Cabera . 


. 132 


Extersaria, Tepkrosia . 


33, 173 


Fasciaria, Ellopia 


. 172 


Filigrammaria, Oporabia 


. 163 


Flavicinctata, Larentia 


167, 174 


Flexula, Aventia . 


. 134 


Fuliginaria, Boletobia . 


. 47 


Fuscantaria, Ennomos 


5 


Gilvaria, Aspilates 


. 147 


Grlabraria, Cleora 


16, 173 


Grossulariata, Abraxas 


150, 173 


Heparata, Eupisteria . 


. 79 


Hirtaria, Biston . 


. 172 


Hispidaria, Nyssia 


. 10 


Holosericeata, Acidalia 


. 99 


Illunaria, Selenia 


. 172 


Imitaria, Acidalia 


. 122 


Immutata, Acidalia 


. 118 


Incanaria, Acidalia 


. 101 


Incanata, Acidalia 


. 108 


Interjectaria, Acidalia . 


. 97 


Lactearia, Iodis 


. 173 


Lapponaria, Nyssia 


. 11 


Laricaria, Tepkrosia 


. 37 


Leucopkasaria, Hybernia 


153, 173 


Lickenaria, Oleora 


. 173 


Lunaria, Selenia . 


. 172 



Maculata, Venilia 



176 



INDEX. 



Mancuniata, Acidalia . 
Margaritata, Metrocampa 
Marginata, Lomaspilis 
Marginepunctata, Acidalia 
Miaria, Larentia . 



Obfuscata, Dasydia 
Obscurata, Gnopbos 
Ocbrata, Acidalia 
Olivata, Larentia . 
Omicronaria, Epbyra 
Orbicularia, Epbyra 
Ornata, Acidalia . 
Osseata, Acidalia . 



Papilionaria, Geometra 
Pendularia, Epbyra 
Pennaria, Himera 
Petraria, Lozograrnma 
Pilosaria, Pbigalia 
Plumaria, Selidosema 
Prodromaria, Amphidasis 
Progemmaria, Hybernia 
Promutata, Acidalia 
Punctaria, Ephyra 
Punctata, Oorycia 
Punctulata, Tepbrosia . 



PAGE 


. 


115 


, 


1 


. 


174 


a . 


110 


• 


174 




45 


43 ; 


173 


. 


80 


. 


170 


63, 


173 


. 


65 


. 


107 


• 


97 




173 


. 


66 


7, 


172 


. 


138 


9, 


172 


. 


139 


, 


172 


. 


174 


. 


108 


. 


62 


133, 


173 


• 


42 



PAOE 

Purpuraria, Lytbria . . 144 

Pusaria, Cabera . . . 173 

Remutata, Acidalia . . 120 

Repandata, Boarmia . . 173 

Rhomboidaria, Boarmia . 173 

Roboraria, Boarmia . 27, 173 

Rubricata, Acidalia . . 86 

Ruficinctata, Larentia . . 167 

Rupicapraria, Hybernia . 174 

Rusticata, Acidalia . . 95 

Sambucaria, Ourapteryx . 172 

Scutulata, Acidalia . . 90 

Smaragdaria, Phorodesma . 59 

Straminata, Acidalia . . 110 

Strigilata, Acidalia . . 121 

Subsericeata, Acidalia . . 114 

Sylvata, Astbena ... 72 

Temerata, Corycia . . 133 

Tbymiaria, Hemithea . . 173 

Tiliaria, Ennomos . 4, 172 

Trigeminata, Acidalia . . 92 

Vernaria, Iodis ... 53 

Yirgularia, Acidalia . . 101 

Viridata, Nemoria . . 52 



Plate CV1, 




A.J.Wendel lith. 



W. BUCKLER del. 



'P.WM.Trap imp. 



PLATE CVL 

OlJRAPTERYX SAMBUCARIA. 

1, 1 a, larvae after final moult; 1, on ivy, 12th 
May, 1860 ; 1 a, on larch, 6th June, moth emerged 
6th July, 1868. ' 

Epione vespertaria. 

2, larva after final moult ; on weeping willow, 
20th June, 1861. 

Epione apioiaria. 

3, 3 a, larvae after final moult ; on sallow, 22nd 
June, 1861 ; and on willow, June 8th, imago July 
4th, 1861. 

Epione advenaria. 

4, 4 a, larvae after final moult ; on bilberry, sallow, 
and wild rose, July 29th, 1861, and July 12th, 1862. 

RtJMIA CKATiEGATA. 

5, 5 a, 5 by 5 c, larvae after final moult ; figured 
May 6th, 1860. 

Venilia maculata. 

6, 6 a, larvae after final moult ; 6 b, enlargement 
of portion of larva ; on red dead-nettle, July 11th, 
1859, imago appearing 30th May, 1860 ; two larvae 
on wood-sage, 24th July, 1872, <$ and ? imagos 
appearing May 13th and 17th, 1873. 

See p. 1. 

Angerona prunaria. 

7, 7 a, 7 by larvae after final moult ; on blackthorn 
June 8th, imago June 25 th, 1861 ; from eggs on 
birch, after hybernation on sallow and birch, Mav 
2nd, 1867 ; May 9th, 1867 ; imago June 14th to 
24th, 1867. 

Metrooampa margaritata. 

8, 8 a, 8 by larvae after final moult ; on sloe and 
oak, May 14th and 18th, 1861 ; on beech and oak, 
May 23rd, 1872. 

See pp. 1 — 3, 



PLATE CVII. 

Ellopia fasciaria. 

1,1a, larvae after final moult, on Scotch fir, May 1st, 
1861, and May 19th, 1866. 

ElJRYMENE DOLOBRARIA. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, larvae in various stages of growth ; 
September 19th, 1860, on sallow; imago June 9th, 
1861; on oak, July 24th, 1861, and August 24th, 
1868. 

See pp. 3—4. 

Pericallia syringaria. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, larvae in various stages ; April 25th, 
1860 ; on privet, May 7th, 1862 ; also another (not 
figured) on honeysuckle, May 6th ; pupa, May 26th. 

Selenia illunaria. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, larvae in various stages of growth ; 
on plum, May 19th, 1860 ; imago, June 29th, 1860 ; 
second brood, March 1861 ; one larva on dogwood, 
sloe, bramble, September 21st, 186 L ; imago March 
1st, 1862. 

Selenia lunaria. 

5, 5 a, 5 6, larvae after final moult ; on oak, August 
11th, 1862 ; imago, April 1st, 1863 ; one on birch, 
July 29th, 1865 ; ? imago, May 31st, 1866. 

Selenia illustraria. 

6, 6 a, 6 5, larvae in various stages ; on birch, July 
18th, 1860; second brood, October 26th, 1860; on 
birch, June 15th, 1868, 



Plate CVH. 




AJ.Wendellith. 



W. BUCKLERS. 



EWlOVapimp. 



Plate CVIII. 




AJ.Wend.eI nth. 



EWM.Trap imp. 



W. BUCKLERS. 



PLATE CVIII. 

Odontopera bidentata. 

1, 1 a, lb, 1 c, Id, 1 e, If larvae in various stages 
of growth; 1, on lichen, September 21st, 1871; 
1 a, on broom, September 3rd, 1871 ; lb, on larch, 
October 22nd, 1868 ; 1 c, on plum, August 19th, 
1874 ; 1 d, on oak, September 6th, 1861 ; imago, 
May 14th, 1862 ; 1 e or If, on sallow, September 9 th, 
1859 ; imago, May 26th, 1860. 

Crocallis elinguaria. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, larvce in various stages ; on elm, 
May 19th, 1860; on sallow, May 10th, 1862; 
imago, July 18th, 1862 ; 2 b and 2 c, on hawthorn, 
May 11th, 1865. 

Ennomos alniaria. 

3, larva after final moult, 3 a, pupa ; reared from 
the egg on birch and sallow, July 21st; pupa, 
August 1st; imago, August 21st, 1860. 

Ennomos tiliaria. 

4, larva after final moult, 4 a, pupa ; on birch and 
sallow, July 24th, £ imago, September 4th, 1866 ; 
several imagos, July 16th to 31st, 1867. 

See pp. 4 — 5. 



PLATE CIX. 

Ennomos fuscantaria. 

1, 1 a, lb, lc, larvae in various stages, 1 d, pupa ; 
on ash, July 23rd and 26th, 1864; July 20th, 
pupa July 28th, imago August 22nd, 1866. 

See pp. 5 — 6. 

Ennomos erosaria. 

2.2 a, larvae after final moult ; on oak, July 8th, 
1861, and July 21st, 1866. 

Ennomos angularia. 

3.3 a, 3 6, larva after final moult, 3 c, pupa ; on 
oak, May 30th, 1862 ; on birch, July 10th, 1862 ; 
imago, August 10th, 1862 ; and on birch, June 6th, 
pupa June 26th, imago July 8th, 1866. 

HlMERA PENNARIA. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, larvae in various stages ; on oak, 
May 26th, 1860, June 3rd, 1861 ; one on sallow, 
May 23rd, 1861; one on sallow, May 28th, 1862; 
imago, October 27th, 1862. 

See pp. 7—9. 

Phigalia pilosaria. 

5, 5 a, 5 6, 5 c, larvae after final moult; 5, on haw- 
thorn, May 23rd, 1872 ; 5 b, on oak, June 7th, 1863 ; 
imago, January 31st, 1864 ; on oak and birch, June 
30th, 1860 ; imago, March 11th, 1861 ; one on elm, 
June 7th, 1863. 

See pp. 9 — 10. 



Plate CJX. 







A.J.Wendellit}i. 



W BUCKLERS. 



P.WM.Trap imp. 



PLATE CX. 

Nyssia zonaria. 

1, la, lb, larvae in various stages ; on yarrow, 
July 6th, 1860 ; and on knot-grass, June 18th and 
22nd, 1867. 



l ? 



Nyssia hispid aria. 

2,2 a, 2 6, larvae after final moult ; on oak, May 20th 
and June 1st, 1866 ; 2 6, June 8th, 1864. 

See pp. 10 — 11. 

BlSTON HIRTARIA. 

3, 3 a, 3 6, 3 c, larvae in various stages ; on lime, 
June 30th, 1860 ; on sallow, July 23rd, 1864 ; imago, 
April 21st, 1865. 

Amphidasis prodromaria. 

4, 4 a, 46, 4 c, larvae after final moult ; 4, June 30th, 
1859; imago, March 18th, 1860; 4 a, July 6th, 
1874 ; 4 6, June 19th, 1860 ; imago, February 16th, 
1861 ; 4 c, pale variety on garden currant bush, 
Julv 12th, 1861 ; ? imago, paler than usual, April 
9th," 1862. 

Amphidasis betularia. 

5, 5 a, 5 6, 5 c, larvae in various stages ; 5, 
August 6th, on plum, young ; 5 a, on oak, August 
31st, 1859 ; imago, June 23rd, 1860 ; 5 6, September 
9th, 1860, from Rev. John Hellins ; 5 c, August 26th, 
1859, the same individual as 5 at a later stage, fed 
on apple, plum, and sloe; imago, June 18th, I860, 



Plate CX. 




A.J.Wendel lith. 



W. BUCKLERS. 



PWMTr 



ap imp . 



Plate CXI. 





3c 



3 cc 




A 



* 1 31 



&» 



& > 



4 c 







4 a, 




A-IWendellitli. 



EWltTrsu imp. 



Yf BUCKLER del. 



PLATE CXI. 
Hemerophila abrtjptaria. 

1, 1 a j 1 b, larvae in various stages of growth ; on 
lilac, August 8th, 1860 ; 1 a, on red currant, July 
25th and August 9th, 1864 ; imago emerged April 
24th, 1865. 

Cleora glabraria. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, larva? in various stages, 2 c, pupa ; 
on Usnea barbata, a shaggy lichen on oak-trunks, 
June 10th, 14th, 17th, 1875, pupa 28th, imagos July 
11th to 21st, 1875 ; 2, from lichen on spruce-fir, 
May 25th, 1872. 

See pp. 16 — 19. 

Cleora lichenaria. 

3, 3 a, 3 5, 3 c, larva? in various stages ; on lichens 
on oak and thorn, June 30th, 1860 ; also on fibrous 
lichens on apple-trees, April 5th, 1862 ; 3 b, on 
apple-tree lichen, June 26th, 1874 ; 3 c, on apple- 
tree lichen at Leominster, May 23rd, 1867. 

BOARMIA REPANDATA. 

4, 4 a, 4 6, 4 c, 4 <i, larvae in various stages ; on 
elm, May 7th, 1860 ; on sallow, thorn, bramble, 
April 15th, 1860 ; imago May 27th to 29th, 1861 ; 
4, on heather, May 23rd, imago June 25th, 1874. 

BOARMIA RHOMBOIDARIA. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, 5 d, larvae in various stages ; on 
elm, blackthorn, imago June 30th, 1860 ; 5, on 
broom, May 19th, imago July 5th, 1864 ; 5 c, on 
privet, July 31st, 1862; 5 d, on ivy, from London, 
June 19th, 1864. 



PLATE CXII. 

BOARMIA ABIETARIA. 

1, 1 a, 1 &, 1 c, larvae in various stages, 1 d, en- 
largement of portion of 1 b ; on birch, May 23rd, 
full-grown June 12th, 1863 ; 1 b, from eggs on yew, 
May 1st, full grown, moths June 8th, 21st, 1877 ; 1 a, 
copied from Mr. Standish. 

See pp. 20—24. 

BOARMIA CINCTAIUA. 

2, 2 a, larva? after final moult ; on birch, July 1st, 
1863, imago April 27th to May 10th, 1864 ; July 3rd, 
1876, reared from e«:gs on birch ; imago April 25th 
to May 22nd, 1877. ' 

See pp. 24—27. 

BOARMIA ROBORARIA. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3 d, larva? in various stages ; 3 d, on 
oak, May 14th, ? imago July 10th, 1869 ; also May 
9th, 29th, June 3rd, imagos July 1st to 11th, 1871. 

See pp. 27—32. 

BOARMIA CONSORTARIA. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, larva? in various stages ; on oak, 
July 20th, 1861, and August 12th, 1870 ; imago 
May 25th to 31st, 1871 ; 4 a, on birch, July 22nd, 
1871. 

See pp. 32 — 34. 



Plate CHI. 




2 a 



AJ.Wendellith. 



EWM.Trap imp. 



W. BUCKLER del. 



Plate COT. 




AJ.Wendellith. 



EW.M.Trap imp. 



W. BUCKLER del. 



PLATE OXIII. 

Tepheosia consonaria. 

1 , la, 1 b, larvae in various stages ; on birch, July 
10th, 1862, and July 16th, 1871 " 

See pp. 34 — 35. 

Tepheosia ckepusoulaeia. 

2, 2 a, 2b, 2 c, larvae in various stages ; 2, on 
sallow, August 19th, 1861, imago March 14th, 1862 ; 
2 a, on birch, June 8th, 1861 ; 2 c, five on larch, 
July 9th, 1867 ; 2 b, copied from Mr. Standish. 

See pp. 35 — 37. 

Tepheosia laeioaeia (biundularia). 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3 d, larvae in various stages ; on 
larch, July 16th, 1859, July 6th, 1871, and May 23rd, 
1863 ; 3 c, on birch, Henry Doubleday, July 9th, 
1867; 3d, July 3rd, 1877. 

See pp. 37—38. 

Tepheosia exteesaeia. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, larvae in various stages ; on oak and 
birch, August 7th, 1862, and August 10th, 1867 ; 
and on sallow, August 24th, 1861. 

See pp. 38—42. 

Tepheosia punctulata. 

5, ha, 5 b, 5 c, 5 d, larvae in various stages; on 
birch, reared from eggs, June 28th and 29th, 1871, 
and July 16th, 1877 ; moth bred May 4th, 1878. 

See pp. 42 — 43. 



i a, 



Plate CUV". 



1 c 



1 6 



^ 






In 

1 a >, ; 7' 






4 A 



6 cc 





3 h 



4 a 




4 t 




4 o 



%Ste- 



ip 




5 a 




AJ.Wendel lith.. 



EWM.Trap imp. 



W. BUCKLER del. 



PLATE CXIV. 

Gnophos obscueata. 

1,1 a, 1 &, 1 c 7 1 d 7 larvae in various stages of 
growth, 1 0, enlargement of portion of 1 d ; on 
chick weed, February 15th, 1862 ; one ate buds of 
hawthorn, March 28th, 1862 ; imago emerged August 
8th and 9th, 1862 ; 1 d, 1 e, on ribwort plantain 
from Cockermouth, April 10th and 22nd, imago 
August, 1862 ; 1 c, April 9th, on Potentilla fragari- 
astrum, imago out July 21st, 1868; another April 
25th, moth out July 22nd, 1868 ; var. pullata on 
chickweed, May 3rd, 1860. 

See pp. 43 — 45. 

Dasydia obfuscata. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, larvae after final moult ; on heather, 
June 18th, 1869 ; imago out July 24th, 1869 ; on 
heather and knot-grass, June 13th, 1870. 

See pp. 45 — 47. 

PsEUDOTEEPtfA CYTXSAUIA. 

3, 3 a, 3 6, larvae after final moult ; 3, May 22nd, 
imago June 24th to July 11th, 1865 ; 3 a, on tops 
of furze, June 22nd, 1877 ; 3 b, on broom, May 19th, 
imago June 29th, 1864. 

GeOMETEA PAPILI0NAR1A. 

4, 4 a, 4 6, 4 c, 4 d, larvae in various stages of 
growth; on birch June 5th, 1860, and May 6th, 
1868 ; 4 d, June 3rd, moth June 29th, 1868 ; 4, 
figured previous to hybernation, September 1st, 1865. 

Nemoeia vieidata. 

5, 5 a, larvae after final moult ; on hawthorn tops 
from eggs, July 30th to end of August, 1864 ; 
imago emerged June 15th, 1865. 

See pp. 52 — 53. 



Plate Ciy. 







5 a 







\f$ 









4pf 10 





10 a ii 




AJ.WenMlitL 



W. BUCKLER del. 



PWM.Trap imp. 



PLATE CXV. 

IODIS VERNARIA. 

1, la, larvae after final moult; on wild clematis, 
May 25th and June 12th; imago July loth, 1863. 

See pp. 53 — 55. 

IODIS LACTEARIA. 

2, larva after final moult ; on sallow, August 
24th, 1860; imago emerged 28th May, 1861. 

Phorodesma bajularia. 

3, 3 a, larvae after final moult, clothed and with its 
clothing pulled off ; on tender leaves of oak, August 
22nd, 1865; imago emerged September 19th, 1865; 
the remainder of the brood hybernated small in the 
larval state. 

See pp. 56 — 59. 

Hemithea thymiaria. 

4, 4 a, 4 b 9 larvae after final moult ; on oak, 6th 
June, 1860, and June 18th, 1866 ; imago emerged 
July 11th, 1866. 

Ephyra porata. 

5, 5 a, larvae after final moult ; on oak, July 4th, 
1859 ; also 22nd September, 1866 ; pupa October 
13th, 1866. 

Ephyra punctaria. 

6, 6 a, larvae after final moult ; on oak, 6th July, 
1861. 

See pp. 62 — 63. 

Ephyra trilinearia. 

7, 7 a, 7 b, larvae in various stages; on beech, 
19th July, 1862 ; also 5th August, 1875 ; imago 
June 7th, 1876. 



PLATE GXY —continued. 

Ephyra omicronaria. 

8, 8 a, larvse after final moult; on maple, 18th 
July, 1866; imago emerged 26th May, 1867. 

See pp. 63 — 64. 

Ephyra orbicularia. 

9, 9 a, 9 b, larvaa after final moult ; on small 
round-leaved sallow, 20th June, 1861 ; on sallow, 
10th and 11th September, 1875; imago emerged 
20th June, 1876. 

See pp. 65- — 66. 

Ephyra pendularia. 

10, 10 a, 10 b, 10 c, larvse in various stages; on 
birch, 10th July, 1862. 

See pp. 66 — 67. 



Plate CXVI. 










6 a. 






W 



A.J.Yeudelli'iK. 



EW.M.Trapimp. 



W.BTJCXLEtl^. 



PLATE OXVL 

Hyria aurorakia. 

1, 1 a, lb, 1c, larvae in various stages ; on knot- 
grass, 7th August, 1865 ; and after hybernation, 
18th May, 1866; pale varieties on knot-grass, 11th 
May, imago 6th July, 1867. 

See pp. 67 — 71. 

ASTHENA LUTE ATA. 

2, larva after final moult; on maple, 3rd October, 
1860; also 24th August, 1861. 

ASTHENA OANDIDATA. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, larvae in various stages; on hazel, 
18th July, 1861 ; imago emerged 13th April, 1862; 
July 9th, 1870; on birch, 14th August, 1872, 
imago 28th May, 1873. 

See pp. 71—72. 

ASTHENA SYLVATA. 

4, 4 a, larvae after final moult; on alder, July 
17th, 1874; also 4th and 9th September, 1875; 
moth bred 25th June, 1876. 

See pp. 72 — 75. 

ASTHENA BLOMEKI. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, 5 d, 5 e, larvae in various stages of 
growth; on wych elm, 27th September to 3rd 
October, 1873; imago 28th June, 1874; 17th 
August, 1874, reared from the egg. 

See pp. 75—79. 

EUPISTERIA HEPAIiATA. 

6, 6 a, 6 b, 6 c, larvae in various stages ; on alder, 
11th July, 1866; imago 3rd July, 1867; 16th 
September, 1870; 29th July, 1872; imago 27th 
May, 1873. 

See pp. 79-80. 

VttNUSIA OAMBRIOA. 

7, 7a, lb, larvae after final moult; on mountain 
ash, 11th August and 18th September, 1863. 



Plate CXY1L 











Ife) 








6 a. 






^ - 



7\ 





A.J.Wendellith. 



EWM.Trap imp. 



WBUCKLER rf#. 



PLATE OXVII. 

AdDALIA RUBRICATA. 

1, la, lb, 1 c, larvae after final moult; reared 
from eggs and preferred knot-grass ; figured April 
26th and May 9th ; imago emerged June 22nd, 
1865; on knot-grass May 6th, 12th, and June 8th, 

1874. 

See pp. 86—89. 

AOIDALIA SCUTULATA. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, larvae after final moult ; on knot-grass, 
April 22nd, 1865 ; also April 23rd, 1868 ; imago 
emerged June 11th, 1868; on Potentilla fragarias- 
trum; and on hawthorn, April 15th, 1874, 

See pp. 90—91. 

AdDALIA BISETATA. 

3, 3 a, larvse after final moult ; 3 b, 3 c, enlarged 
details of segments ; on dandelion, April 4th and 
14th, and May 23rd, 1868 ; imagos appeared June 
10th to 22nd, 1868. 

See pp. 91—92. 

AdDALIA TRIGEMINATA. 

4, 4 a, larvse after final moult ; 4 b, enlarged 
details of segment; on knot-grass July 16th, imago 
emerging August 13th, 1870; five on ivy and low 
plants, March 3rd, moths out May 28th to June 3rd, 
1876. 

See pp. 92—94. 

AdDALIA CONTIGUARIA. 

5, 5 a, 5 &, larvae in various stages ; 5 c, enlarged 
details of segment ; on heath and .Empetrum nigrum, 
April 4th to 20th, imago emerging July 5th, 1866. 

See pp. 94—95. 



PLATE CXVII— continued. 

AciDALIA RUSTIC ATA. 

6, larva; 6 a, enlarged detail of segment; on 
lilac and ivy, September 13th, 1865; after hyber- 
nation ate old dry bramble leaves ; imagos emerged 
July 8th to 20th, 1866. 

See pp. 95—97. 

ACIDALIA OSSEATA. 

7, 7 a, larvse in various stages ; 7 b, 7 c, enlarged 
details of segments ; 7, 7 b, A. osseata, on dande- 
lion, April 3rd, 1861 ; 7 a, 7 c, A. interject aria, on 
dandelion, April 13th, moth out June 26th, 1868. 

See pp. 97—99. 



Plate CZVIE. 





n 








6cLM 1 



~ 7 -*..r 



ventral. 

A.J.Wendellith. 



dorsal. 




PWM.Trapimp. 



W.BUCKLERc&Z. 



PLATE CXVIII. 

ACIDALIA HOLOSERICEATA. 

1, la, larvae in various stages; 1 b, enlarged 
details of segments ; on Kelianthernurii vulgar e 9 
March 31st and April 13th 5 imagos appearing June 
9th and 11th, 1868. 

See pp. 99—101. 

Acid alia virgularia. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, larvae in various stages ; 2 c, enlarged 
details of segment ; on dandelion, imago appearing 
October 11th, 1859 ; September 10th, 1872, imagos 
out September 26th to October 2nd. 1872; 2 b, on 
knot-grass, June 12th ; imago out July 16th, 1869. 

See pp. 101—106. 

ACIDALIA CLRCELLATA. 

3, 3 a, larvae after final moult ; on knot-grass, 
August 7th, imago appearing September 14th, 
1865 

See pp. 106—107. 

ACIDALIA ORNATA. 

4, larva after final moult ; 4 a, enlarged details of 
segment; on wild thyme and mint, August 3rd, 
1865 ; bred by Rev. Joseph Greene, September, 
1865. 

See pp. 107—108. 

ACIDALIA INCANATA. 

5, 5 a, larvae after final moult ; on mugwort and 
yarrow, May 27th, 1864; 5, on sallow, June 29th, 
imago emerging July 27th, 1866. 

See pp. 108—110. 



PLATE CXVIII— continued. 

ACIDALIA MARGINEPUNCTATA. 

6, 6 a, 6 &, larvse after final moult ; 6 c, ventral 
aspect, 6 d, dorsal aspect, enlarged details of seg- 
ments ; from eggs in 1873, on knot-grass, bramble, 
etc., June 6th, 15th, 16th, 22nd, and 29th, 1874; 
imagos emerged July 27th to August 5th, 1874. 

See pp. 110—114. 

AOIDALTA SUBSERICEATA. 

7, 7 a, 7 b, 7 c 9 7 d, 7 e 9 7 f, larvae in various 
stages ; on dandelion, October 9th, 1862 ; young 
and full grown, April 18th, 1863 ; 7 a, before 
hybernation, October 26th, 1865 ; 7 b, after hyber- 
nation, May 15th, 1866; imago emerged July 5th, 
1866 ; 7 c, 7 d, 7 e, 7f, four of six larvae on knot- 
grass, August 18th to September 4th, 1866. 

See pp. 114 — 115. 

ACIDALIA MANCUNIATA. 

8, larva after final moult; on Polygonum avicu- 
lare, July 15th, 1865 ; imago out August 9th, 
1865. 

See pp. 115—118. 



Plate Cm. 




AJ.Wendellith. 



EW.M.Trap imp. 



W BUCKLERS. 



PLATE CXIX. 

AdDALIA IMMUTATA. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, 1 d, larvaB in various stages ; on 
knot-grass and groundsel, May 11th, 1864; imago 
emerged June 18th, 1864; September 5th, moths 
out 11th and 17th, 1868; four on hawthorn, May 
27th and 28th, imagos out July 7th, 1873. 

See pp. 118—120. 

AOIDALIA EEMUTATA. 

2, 2 a 9 2 b, 2 c, larvaB after final moult ; on sallow, 
September 10th, 1860 ; and on sallow, September 
1st, 1865. 

See pp. 120—121. 

AOIDALIA EUMATA. 

3,3 a, larvae after final moult ; on whortleberry, 
(the natural food) ; on chickweed, April 5th, 1861 ; 
on knot-grass and wild strawberry, May 4th, 1867. 

AOIDALIA STEIGILATA. 

4, larva after final moult ; on Potentilla reptans, 
May 26th; imago appeared July 6th, 1860. 

See pp. 121—122. 

AOIDALIA IMITAEIA. 

5, 5 a, 5 6, oc, 5 d, larvae in various stages ; on 
groundsel; on knot-grass, June 15th, 1868; May 
26th, 1864; imago out June 8th, 1864; 5 6, 5 d, 
from clematis, but chose knot-grass, May 10th, 
imago appearing July 9th, 1871. 

See pp. 122—123, 



PLATE CXIX— continued. 

ACIDALIA EMUTARIA. 

6, 6 a, larvse after final moult ; 6 b, enlarged 
details of segment; May 21st, 1867, on Polygonum 
aviculare and whitethorn blossoms. 

See pp. 124—126. 

AdDALIA AVERSATA. 

7 , 7 a, 7 b, larvae after final moult ; 7 c 9 enlarged 
details of segment ; on chickweed, April 17th, 
1861 ; on buds of whitethorn, March 25th, 1862 ; 
also on knot-grass. 

AdDALIA INORNATA. 

8, 8 a, '8 b, larvae in various stages; on black- 
thorn, May 8th, imago appearing June 29th, 1861 ; 
on knot-grass, August 18th, 1864; on knot-grass, 
May 9th, 1865 ; and on Viola odorata, May 12th, 
imago appearing July 1st, 1870. 

ACIDALIA DEGENERARIA. 

9, 9 a, 9 b, larvae in various stages ; 9 c, dorsal 
aspect, and 9 d, ventral aspect, enlarged details of 
markings ; from eggs reared on knot-grass up to 
October 29th, 1871, from thenceforward on bramble, 
Veronica polita, etc., March 14th to May 15th ; 
imagos emerged June 14th to July 14th, 1872. 

See pp. 127—130. 

ACIDALIA EMARGINATA. 

10, 10 a, 10 b, larvae in various stages ; on bind- 
weed, 1860; June 21st to July 25th, 1864; June 
14th, imago out July 7th, 1871. 

See pp. 130—132. 



Plate CXX. 



% 



1 1 

m 

! 






5 ^ 





A.J.WendelKtfi. 



EWM.Tr 



i>p imp. 



WBUCKLER <&Z. 



PLATE CXX. 

Bkadyepetes amatarta. 

1, la, larvae after final moult; May 5th, 1860, 
on dock and sorrel; on dock, May 30th, 1864. 

Cabera pusaria. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, larvae in various stages ; on birch, 
July 21st, 1862; imago appeared June 13th, 1863. 

Cabera exanthemata. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3c, 3d, Be, Sf, Sg, Sh, larvae in 
various stages of growth; on sallow, October 6th, 
1859, and September 17th, 1860; imagos emerged 
June, 1860 and 1861 ; August 19th and October 
13th, 1861 ; imagos emerged May 10th and June 
25th, 1862 ; on sallow, August 31st, 1863 ; imago 
out June 5th, 1864; on alder, September 16th, 
1870; imago out June 27th, 1871; 3/, on birch, 
August 31st, 1870; imago out June 24th, 1871. 

See pp. 132—133. 

CoRYCTA PUNCTATA. 

4, 4 a, 4 /;, larvae after final moult ; on small- 
leaved sloe, July 16th, 1859; July 8th, 1863; 
imago out May 11th, 1864; August 14th, 1863; 
imago out May 25th, 1864. 

See pp. 133—134. 

CORYOIA TAMINATA. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, larvae in various stages ; one reared 
from egg, on hawthorn, July 11th, 1862 ; three on 
wild cherry and hawthorn, July 29th, 1864 ; imago 
emerged May 1865. 

Aleucis piotaria. 

6, 6 a, 6 b, larvae in various stages ; on black- 
thorn, June 24th, 1864; on stunted sloe, June 16th, 
1869 ; imago emerged April 12th, 1870. 



PLATE CXXI. 

AVENTCA ELEXULA. 

1, 1 a 9 larvae in various stages ; 1, on feathery 
lichens on thorn, May 7th, 1868; a larva not 
figured on soft lichens of hawthorn, cherry, etc., 
May 12th, 1869 ; 1 a, on lichens on yew, May 25th, 
1871 ; imago emerged June 21st, 1871. 

See pp. 134—137. 

Macaria alternata. 

2, 2 a, 2 b 9 2 c 9 larvae after final moult ; on black- 
thorn, September 4th, 1860, and July 31st, 1861. 

Macaria notata. 

3, 3 a 9 3 b 9 3 c 9 larvae after final moult ; on narrow- 
leaved sloe, July 18th, 1861 ; and on birch, July 
21st, 1862. 

Macaria ltturata. 

4, 4a, 4<b, larvae in various stages of growth ; on 
Scotch fir, August 8th and 18th, 1863, and Sep- 
tember 8th, 1864; imago emerged May 12th, 1864. 

Halia wavaria. 

5, 5 a, larvae after final moult; on gooseberry, 
May 12th, and on currant, July 26th, 1862 ; imago 
July 1st to August 31st, 1862. 

Strenia clathkata. 

6, larva after final moult ; on white clover, 
August 8th, 1867 ; imagos emerged May 20th to 
24th, 1868. 

See pp. 137—138. 

LOZOGRAMMA PETRARIA. 

7, 7 a, 7 b, larvae after final moult; on fern (Pteris 
aquilina), June 18th to 29th, 1864; imago emerged 
April and May, 1865. 

See pp. 138—139. 



Plate CXXI. 











5 a 





A.J.Wendellith.. 



E¥M.Traj imp. 



W.BUCKLER cfcZ. 



Plate CXXII. 




AJ.Wen&ellith. 



PWM.Tra.-p imp. 



W.BUCKLER&Z. 



PLATE CXXII. 

NUMHKIA PULVERARIA. 

1, la, lb 9 larvae after final moult; on sallow, 
August 5th, 1859, imago June, 1860 ; on sallow, 
July 13th, 20th, 1874; moths out May 14th, 1875. 

MitfSIA BELGIARIA. 

2, 2 a, larva3 after final moult ; on heather, May 
2nd, 1861, and May 27th, 1869. 

Selidosema plumaria. 

3, larva after final moult ; on heath and grass on 
heaths, May 12th ; imago emerged August 5th, 1862. 

See pp. 139—140. 

FlDONIA ATOMAEIA. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, 4 d, 4 e, 4/, larvae in various stages 
of growth ; on heath and ling, September 21st, 
1860, imago emerging May 11th and 31st, 1861 ; 
on heather, August 4th to 21st, 1863, imago emerg- 
ing May 11th to 16th, 1864; from Wicken Fen on 
Ly thrum salicaria, August 14th, 1868, imago May 
28th, 1869; 4, female; 4 d, male. 

See pp. 140—141. 

FlDONIA PINIARIA. 

5, 5 a, larvae after final moult ; on Finns sylves- 
tris, October 1st, 1861 ; and on larch, October 13th, 

1866. 

FlDONIA BRUNNEATA. 

6, larva after final moult ; on whortleberry, April 
28th, 1868. 

See pp. 141 — 143. 

FlDONIA LIMBARIA. 

7, 7 a, larvae after final moult ; on broom, Sep- 
tember 22nd, 1866, imago emerging May 26th, 27th, 
etc., 1867. 



PLATE CXXIII. 

MlNOA EUPHORBIATA. 

1, larva after final moult ; 1 a, details of segment ; 
on Euphorbia amygdaloides, July 12th, 1865 ; imago 
May 26th, 1866. 

Scoria dealbata. 

2, 2 a, larvae after final moult ; on knot-grass, 
dock, chickvveed, and grass, April 20th and May 
9th, 1865. • 

See pp. 143—144 

Sterrha saoraria. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3 d, 3 e, larvae in various stages of 
growth ; 3 /', pupa in cocoon ; from eggs laid August 
19th, hatched 29th, 1865 ; fed on Polygonum avicu- 
lare, September 18th and 19th, 1865; began to 
spin September 20th, all six in pupa September 
30th; moths emerged, one October 15th, two 17th, 
one 19th, one 25th, and one 28th, 1865; a larva 
not figured, from a brood of eggs laid by ? cap- 
tured at light, Vale of Neath, Glamorganshire, 
figured September 17th, 1867; 3/", pupa figured 
October 5th, 1867. 

ASPILATES STRIGILLAFJA. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, larvae in various stages ; on ling, 
broom, heath, and furze blossoms, March 7th to 
April 5th, 1862. 

ASPILATES CITEARIA. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, larvae in various stages ; on knot-grass, 
July 26th ; imago September 1st, 1864 ; also May 
17th, 1866, and July 15th, 1868. 

ASPILATES GILVARIA. 

6, 6 a, larvae after final moult ; on wild thyme, 
yarrow, knot-grass, Potentilla reptans, and Veronica 
serpyllifolia, July 6fch to 9th, imago emerging 
August 19th, 1870. 

See pp. 147—150. 



Platte GXXIII. 




I l: ] 



1 a. 






4 



3e 



!::;, 



Si 



3 f 




AJWendellith. 



PWMTrap imp. 



WBUCKLER c&£. 



Plate CXXIV. 





id 







3 a. 







A.J.Wena.ellith. 



EW.M.Trapimp. 



W BUCKLER del. 



PLATE OXXIV. 

Abraxas gross ulariata. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, larvae in various stages of growth ; 
1 d, pupa; 1, 1 a, on currant, May 29th, 1862 ; 1 b, 
1 c, varieties from Hartlepool, June 7th, bred July 
11th to 16th, 1879. 

See pp. 150 — 151. 

Abraxas ulmata. 

2, larva after final moult ; on elm and hazel, 
August 14th, 1862. 

LlGDIA ADUSTATA. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3 d, larvae in various stages ; on 
spindle, August 23rd, 1860 ; also October 3rd, 
1864; 3 c, 3 d, variety, September 22nd, 1864. 

See pp. 151 — 153. 

LOMASPILIS MARGINATA. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, larvae in various stages ; on osier, 
August 24th, 1867, moth emerging June 11th, 
1868; 4, on sallow, August 18th, 1859, imago 
emerging July 1st, 1860 ; 4 a or 4 b, September 4th, 
1860, imago emerging June 17th, 1861; 4 c, on 
sallow, August 14th, 1863. 

Pachycnemia hippooastanarja. 

5, 5 a, bb, he, larvae in various stages ; on ling, 
June 27th, 1861 ; and on heath, July 30th, 1863, 
and August 15th, 1864; imago emerging April 
26th, 1865. 



PLATE CXXV. 

HtBERNIA EUPI0APEAE1A. 

1, 1 a, lb, 1 c, larvae after final moult; May 25th 
and June 11th, 1860, on blackthorn and white- 
thorn, imago emerging January 31st, 1861 ; on 
heath and bilberry, May 19th, 1864. 

HYBEENIA LEUOOPHjEAEIA. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, 2 d, 2 e, larvae in various stages of 
growth; on oak; May 20th and June 4th, 1862; 
May 6th, 1863; and May 24th and 26th, 1864; 
imago January 28th, 1864. 

See pp. 153 — 155. 

Hybeenia aueantiaria. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larvae after final moult ; on oak, 
birch, and hawthorn, May 10th, 12th, and 13th, 
imago November 3rd, 1869; and on birch, May 
25th, 1861, imago January 3rd, 1862. 

See pp. 155 — 157. 

Hybeenia peogemmaeia. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, 4 d, 4 e, larvae iu various stages ; 
on oak and sallow, June 8th, 1861, imago March 
7th, 1862 ; 4, 4 a, two dark ones on sloe, June 6th, 
1862; 4e, pale one on laurel, July 21st, 1863 ; 4*d 9 
on maple and oak, June 6th, 1872 ; ? moth 
emerged February 5th, 1873. 

Hybeenia defoliaeia. 

5, 5 a, larvae after final moult ; on oak and birch, 
June 6th, I860, and May 30th, 1864; imago 
emerged November 26th, 1860. 



Plate CXXV. 




la 




1 "*■ 'ci 



. 






4 a 





A.J.Wendel litji. 



E W.IVr.Trap imp . 



W.BUCKLER&l. 



PLATE CXXVI. 

ANISOPTERYX 2ESCULAMA. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, larvae after final moult; 1 c, enlarged 
segment ; on sloe and hawthorn, May 22nd, 1861 ; 
imago February and March, 1862 ; one on birch, 
June 29th, 1861 ; imago March 15th, 1862 ; one on 
oak, June 11th, 1864; imago March 25th, 1865; 
from eggs on oak, May 25th and 26th, 1877 ; moths 
bred, March 14th and 16th, 1878. 

See pp. 157—160. 

Cheimatobia brumata. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, larvae in various stages ; from eggs in 
March ; fed on elm, blackthorn, and whitethorn, 
May and June ; imagos November, 1859 ; on sallow, 
June 6th, imagos October 27th and 30th, 1870. 

See p. 160. 

Cheimatobia boreata. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larvae in various stages ; on birch, 
from eggs, March 30th, April 17th, 18th, and 25th, 
1868 ; 3 d, head and anterior segments, enlarged. 

See pp. 160—161. 

Oporabia dilutata. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, 4 d, larvae in various stages ; on 
blackthorn, May 8th, 1859 ; imago October, 1859 ; 
one on chestnut, May 24th, five on birch, May 
25th, 1861, and one on laurel; imagos emerged in 
October and November, 1861. 

See pp. 161—163. 

Oporabia filigrammaria. 

5, larva after final moult; on sallow, April 6th, 
1863. 

See pp. 163—165. 



Plate CXXVII. 











5 a MM/ 5 1 





A.J.Wendel lith.. 



FW.MTrap imp. 



W BUCKLER del. 



PLATE CXXVIL 

LAEENTIA D1DYMATA. 

1, la, larvae after final moult ; on primrose 
flowers; on heath, May 28th, imago July 17th, 
1861 ; on chervil, May 11th, 1861 ; on chickweed, 
April 16th, 1861. 

Laeentia multisteigaeia. 

2, 2 a, larvae after final moult ; on Galium 
aparine, June 26th, 1860, and June 8th, 1865. 

Laeentia c^siata. 

3, 3 a, 3 6, larvae after final moult ; on flowers and 
leaves of heath, April 5th, 1861 ; on bilberry, May 
8th, imago June 12th to 20th, 1863. 

See pp. 166 — 167. 

Laeentia elavictnctata. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, larvae after final moult ; on yellow 
mountain saxifrage (Saxifraga aizoides), July 25th, 
1860; and reared from eggs on 8. hypnoides, 
figured March 16th to 25th, 1875. 

See pp. 167—169. 

Laeentia salicaeia. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, larvae after final moult ; on Galium 
verum, July 26th, 1862. 

Laeentia olivaeia. 

6, 6 a, larvae after final moult ; 6 b, enlargement 
of a segment ; 6 c, pupa ; on Galium mollugo, 
March 21st, 1860 ; three on G. mollugo, March 20th. 
imagos June 28th, August 2nd and 3rd, 1874 ; 
6 c, pupa figured May 15th. 

See pp. 170—171. 

Laeentia miaeia. 

7, 7 a, 7 b, 7 c 9 larvae in various stages ; on Galium 
mollugo, September 17th, 1860; two March 20th, 
1862 ; imago May 23rd, 1862 ; 7 c, hybernating, 
February 4th, 1861. 



RAY SOCIETY. 



INSTITUTED 1844. 



FOR THE PUBLICATION OF WORKS ON 
NATURAL HISTORY. 

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION ONE GUINEA. 



LIS 



OF 



COUNCIL, OFFICERS, LOCAL SECRETARIES, 

AND MEMBERS, 



TOGETHER WITH THE 



TITLES OF THE PUBLICATIONS OF THE SOCIETY 



CORRECTED TO FEBRUARY, 1897. 



Council anir Officers of % Jlim §>mh, 

Elected 18th June, 1896. 



°§xz$xbz\xL 
The Rt. Hon. Sir JOHN LUBBOCK, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 



(ftmmaL 



Prof. Allman, F.R S. 

C. G. Barrett, Esq., F.E.S. 

B. A. Bower, Esq., F.E.S. 

Dr. Braithwaite, F.L.S. 

Rev. A. Fuller, M.A., F.E.S. 

H. C. Gatty, Esq., LL.D., F.L.S. 

F. D. Godman, Esq., F.R.S. 

Dr. J. Harlet, F.L.S. 

J. Hopkinson, Esq., F.L.S. 

A. Lister, Esq., F.L.S. 

Dr. Meiklejohn, F.L.S. 



H. T. Mennell, Esq., F.L.S. 
A. D. Michael, Esq., F.L.S. 
G. T. Porritt, Esq., F.L.S. 
Proe. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. 
Dr. Power, F.L.S. 
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0. Salvin, Esq., F.R.S. 
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Lord Walsingham, M.A., F.R.S. 



R. McLACHLAN, Esq., F.R.S., 23, Clarendon Road, Lewisham, S.E. 



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Allen, E. S., Esq., Shepherds Green, Chislehurst. 

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American Institute, New York, U.S.A. 

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8 

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10 

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Hull Public Libraries^ Hull, 



11 

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12 

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13 

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14 

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Sharpus, F. W., Esq., 30, Compton road, Islington, N. 
Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society, Sheffield. 
Shillitoe, B., Esq., F.L.S., 2, Frederick place, Old Jewry, E.C. 
Sion College Library, Victoria Embankment, W.C. 
Sladen, Rev. C. A., Barton Vicarage, Neston, Chester. 
Smith, Basil Woodd, Esq., F.S.A., Branch hill, Hampstead, N.W. 
Smith, F. W., Esq., Hollywood, Lewisham hill, S.E. 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Taunton. 
Sotheran, Messrs., 136, Strand, W.C. 
South London Entomological Society, Hibernia Chambers, London 

Bridge, S.E. 
South, R., Esq., F.E.S., Oxford Road, Macclesfield. 
Southport Free Library, Southport. 

Spicer, Messrs., Brothers, 19, New Bridge street, Blackfriars, E.C. 
St. Albans Public Library, St. Albans. 
St. Andrews University Library, St. Andrews. 

Stearns, A. E., Esq., F.E.S., 99, Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Park, W. 
Stevens, B. F., Esq., 4, Trafalgar square, W.C. 
Stewart, Prof. C, V.P.L.S., Royal College of Surgeons, Lincoln's Inn 

Fields, W.C. 
Stockholm Royal Academy, Stockholm. 
Straher, J. H., Esq., Stagshaw House, Corbridge-on-Tyne. 
Strasbourg University Library, Germany. 



15 

Stubbins, J., Esq., F.G.S., Ridge End, Wood lane, Headingley, Leeds. 
Sunderland Subscription Library, Fawcett street, Sunderland. 

Thompson, I. C, Esq., F.L.S., F.R.M.S., 53, Croxteth road, Liver- 
pool. 

Thornewill, Rev. C. F., F.E.S., Calverhall Vicarage, Whitechurch, 
Salop. 

Toronto, University of, Canada. 

Torquay Natural History Society, Museum, Babbacombe road, Torquay. 

Townsend, F., Esq.,M.A., M.P., F.L.S., Honington Hall, Shipston-on- 
Stour. 

Trimble, Mrs. James, Egerton House, Egerton, Kent. 

Tunbridge Wells, Natural History Society, Tunbridge Wells. 

Turner, Professor Sir William, F.R.S.E., University of Edinburgh. 



University College, London. 
Upsala, University of, Sweden. 



Vicars, John, Esq., 8, St. Alban's square, Bootle, Liverpool. 
Vicary, William, Esq., The Priory, Colieton crescent, Exeter. 



Waldegrave, Earl, 20, Bryanstone square, W. 

Walker, Alfred 0., Esq., F.L.S., Nant Glyn, Colwyn Bay, Denbighshire. 
Walker, Eev. Dr., F.L.S., Duis Mallard, Cricklewood, N.W. 
Walsingham, Thomas de Grey, Lord, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., Merton 

Hall, Thetford, Norfolk. 
Warbury, J. C, Esq., 8, Porchester terrace, W. 
Warden, Dr. Charles, 31, Newall street, Birmingham. 
Warrington Museum and Library, Warrington. 
Washington Library of Congress, U.S.A. 
"Webb, S., Esq., Maidstone House, Dover. 
Wellington College, Berks. 
Welter, Mons. H., 39, Rue Bonaparte, Paris. 
Wesley, E. F., Esq., A.K.C., 28, Essex street, Strand, W.C. 
West Kent Natural History Society, Herbert Jones, Esq., F.L.S., Hon. 

Treas., 15, Montpelier Eow, Blackheath, S.E. 
Wheeler, F. D., Esq., LL.D., F.E.S., Paragon House School, Norwich. 



16 

Whittle, F. G., Esq., 3, Marine Avenue, Southend, Essex. 
Wickes, W. D., Esq., 32, Burlington Gardens, Acton, W. 
Wiltshire, Rev. Professor T., M.A., F.L.S., Secretary, 25, Granville 

park, Lewisham, London, S.E. 
Wollaston, G. H., Esq., 4, College road, Clifton, near Bristol. 
Wood, J. H., Esq., M.B., Tarrington, Ledbury. 
Wright, Professor E. P., F.L.S., Trinity College, Dublin. 



Yale University, New Haven, U.S. 
York Philosophical Society, York. 



Zoological Society, 3, Hanover square, W. 



LIST OF THE ANNUAL VOLUMES 



OP THE 



RAY SOCIETY. 

EKOM THEIR COMMENCEMENT, IN 1844 ? TO 
FEBEUAKY, 1897. 



LIST OF THE ANNUAL VOLUMES ISSUED 
BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 



For the First Year, 1844. 

I. Reports on the Progress of Zoology and Botany. Trans- 

lated by H. E. Strickland, Jan., M.A., F.R.S., E. Lan- 
kester, M.D., F.R.S., and W. B. Macdonald, B.A. 8vo. 

II. Memorials of John Ray : consisting of the Life of John 

Ray, by Derham ; the Biographical Notice of Ray, by 
Baron Cuvier and M. Dupetit Thouars, in the ' Biographie 
Universelle; ' Life of Ray, by Sir J. E. Smith : the Itine- 
raries of Ray, with Notes, by Messrs. Babington and 
Yarrell. Edited by E. Lankester, M.D., F.R.S. 8vo. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part I. Ten Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Second Year, 1845. 

I. Steenstrup on the Alternation of Generations. Translated 

from the German, by George Bask, F.R.S. Three Plates. 
8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part II. Thirteen 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



20 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 



III. Reports and Papers on Botany, consisting of Translations 
from the German. Translated by W. B. Macdonald, B. A. ; 
G. Busk, F.R.S.; A. Henfrey, F.R.S. ; and J. Hudson, 
B.M. Seven Plates. 8vo. 



For the Third Year, 1846. 

I. Meyen's Geography of Plants. Translated from the German 

by Miss Margaret Johnston. 8vo. 

II. Burmeister on the Organization of Trilobites. Translated 

from the German, and edited by Professors T. Bell and 
E. Forbes. Six Plates. Imp. 4to. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part III. Eleven 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Fourth Year, 1847. 

I. Oken's Elements of Physio-philosophy. Translated from 

the German by Alfred Tulk. 8vo. 

II. Reports on the Progress of Zoology. Translated from the 

German by Messrs. Geo. Busk, A. H. Haliday, and A. 
Tulk. 8vo. 

III. A Synopsis of the British Naked-eyed Pulmograde Medusae. 
By Professor E. Forbes, F.R.S. Thirteen Plates. Imp. 
4to. 



For the Fifth Year, 1848. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 
Vol. I. 8vo. 



ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 21 

II. Letters of John Ray. Edited by E. Lankester, M.D., 

F.R.S. Two Plates. 8vo. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part IV. Twelve Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Sixth Year, 1849. 

I. Reports and Papers on Vegetable Physiology and Botanical 

Geography. Edited by A. Henfrey, F.R.S. Three Plates. 
8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Entomostracous Crustacea. 

By W. Baird, M.D., F.R.S. Thirty-six Plates. 8vo. 



For the Seventh Year, 1850. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 

Vol. II. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part V. Fifteen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Eighth Year, 1851. 

I. A Monograph of the British Angiocarpous Lichens. By the 

Rev. W. A. Leighton, M.A. Thirty Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the Family Cirripedia. By C. Darwin, 

M.A., F.R.S. Vol. I. Ten Plates. 8vo, 



22 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 



For the Ninth Year, 1852. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 

Vol. III. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part VI. Twelve 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Tenth Year, 1853. 

I. A Monograph of the Family Cirripedia. By C. Darwin, 

M.A., F.R.S. Vol. II. Thirty Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Volume of Botanical and Physiological Memoirs, in- 

cluding Braun on Rejuvenescence in Nature. Six Plates. 
8vo. 



For the Eleventh Year, 1854. 

Bibliographia Zoologies et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 
Vol. IV. 8vo. (Completing the work.) 



For the Twelfth Year, 1855. 

A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. By 
Messrs. Alder and. Hancock. Part VII. Nine Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 



For the Thirteenth Year, 1856. 

A Monograph of the British Fresh-water Polyzoa. By Pro- 
fessor Allman, F.R.S. Eleven Plates. Imp. 4to. 



ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 23 



For the Fourteenth Year, 1857. 

A Monograph of the Recent Foraminifera of Great Britain. 
By Professor Williamson, F.R.S. Seven Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Fifteenth Year, 1858. 

The Oceanic Hydrozoa. By Professor Huxley, F.R.S. Twelve 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Sixteenth Year, 1859. 

A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S. Part I. Twelve Plates. Imp. 
4to. 



For the Seventeenth Year, 1860. 

An Introduction to the Study of the Foraminifera. By W. B. 
Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c, assisted by W. K. 
Parker, F.R.S., and T. Rupert Jones, F.G.S. Twenty- 
two Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Eighteenth Year, 1861. 

On the Germination, Development, and Fructification of the 
Higher Cryptogamia, and on the Fructification of the 
Coniferse. By Dr. Wilhelm Hofmeister. Translated by 
Frederick Currey, M.A., F.R.S., Sec. L.S. Sixty-five 
Plates. 8vo. 



24 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 



For the Nineteenth Year, 1862. 

A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S. Part II. Seventeen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 



For the Twentieth Year, 1863. 

The Reptiles of British India. By Albert C. L. G. Giinther, 
M.D., F.R.S. Twenty-six Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Twenty-first Year, 1864. 

A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bowerbank, 
LL.I)., F.R.S. Vol. I. Thirty-seven Plates. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-second Year, 1865. 

I. The British Hemiptera Heteroptera. By Messrs. J. W. 

Douglas and John Scott. Twenty-one Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bower- 

bank, LL.D., F.R.S. Vol.11. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-third Year, 1866. 

I. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 
D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. I, containing Geographico-botanical, 
and Structural, and Physiological Memoirs. Edited by 
J. J. Bennett, F.R.S. 8vo. 



ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 25 

II. Recent Memoirs on the Cetacea. By Professors Eschricht, 

Reinhardt, and Lilljeborg. Edited by W. H. Flower, 
F.R.S. Six Plates. Imp. 4to. 

III. Nitzch's Pterylography, translated from the German. 
Edited by P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. Ten Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Twenty-fourth Year, 1867. 

I. A Monograph on the Structure and Development of the 

Shoulder-girdle. By W. K. Parker, F.R.S. Thirty Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

II. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. II. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-fifth Year, 1868. 

I. Vegetable Teratology. By M. T. Masters, M.D., F.L.S, 

8vo. 

II. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. III. Thirty-eight Plates. Imp. 4to. 
(Completing the work.) 



For the Twenty-sixth Year, 1869. 

A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids. 
By J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. Part I. Twelve Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Twenty-seventh Year, 1870. 

A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids. 
By J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. Part II. Eleven Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 



26 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 



For the Twenty-eighth Year, 1871. 

A Monograph of the Collembola and Thysanura. By Sir J. 
Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. Seventy-eight Plates. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-ninth Year, 1872. 

A Monograph of the British Annelids. By W. C. Mcintosh, 
M.D., F.R.S.E. Part I. Ten Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Thirtieth Year, 1873. 

A Monograph of the British Annelids. By W. C. Mcintosh, 
M.D., F.R.S.E. Part I. continued. Thirteen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Thirty-first Year, 1874. 

A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bowerbank, 
LL.D., F.R.S. Vol. III. Ninety-two Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-second Year, 1875. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. I. Forty-two Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-third Year, 1876. 

A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 
M.D., F.L.S. Vol. I. Thirty-six Plates. 8vo. 



ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 27 



For the Thirty-fourth Year, 1877. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S, Vol. II. Fifty Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-fifth Year, 1878. 

A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 
M.D., F.L.S. Vol. II. Forty-nine Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-sixth Year, 1879. 

I. A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 

M.D., F.L.S. Vol. III. Eleven Plates. 8vo. (Com- 
pleting the work.) 

II. A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By the late 

J. S. Bowerbank, LL.D., F.R.S. Edited, with additions, 
by Rev. A. M. Norman, M.A., F.L.S. Vol. IV. Seven- 
teen Plates. 8vo. (Completing the work.) 



For the Thirty-seventh Year, 1880. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. III. Twenty-eight Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-eighth Year, 1881. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. 
By P. Cameron, F.E.S. Vol.1. Twenty-one Plates. 8vo. 



28 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 



For the Thirty-ninth Year, 18S2. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. IV. Twenty-seven Plates. 8vo. (Com- 
pleting the Work.) 



For the Fortieth Year, 1883. 

British Oribatidse. By A. D. Michael, F.L.S. Vol. I. 
Thirty-one Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-first Year, 1884. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By 
P. Cameron, F.E.S. Vol. II. Twenty-seven Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-second Year, 1885. 

The Larvse of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton, F.R.S. Vol. I. 
The Butterflies. Seventeen Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-third Year, 1886. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton, F.R.S. Vol. II. 
The Hawk-Moths and part of the Bombyces. Eighteen 
Plates. 8vo. 



ISSUED BY THE BAY SOCIETY. 29 



For the Forty-fourth Year, 1887. 

British Oribatidae. By A. D. Michael, F.L.S. Vol. II. 
Thirty-one Plates. 8vo. (Completing the Work.) 



For the Forty-fifth Year, 1888. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton, F.R.S. Vol. III. 
The concluding portion of the Bombyces. Eighteen 
Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-sixth Y r EAR, 1889. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By 
P. Cameron, F.E.S. Vol. III. Seventeen Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-seventh Year, 1890. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton, F.R.S. Vol. IV. 
The first portion of the Noctuae. Sixteen Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-eighth Year, 1891. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited (in part) by the late H. T. Stainton, 
F.R.S. Vol. V. The second portion of the Noctuae. 
Seventeen Plates. 8vo. 



30 LIST OF VOLUMES ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 



For the Forty-ninth Year, 1892. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By 
P. Cameron, F.E.S. Vol. IV. Nineteen Plates. 8vo. 
(Completing the Work.) 



For the Fiftieth Year, 1893. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by G. T. Porritt, F.L.S. Vol. VI. The 
third portion of the Noctuae. Nineteen Plates. 8vo. 



For the Fifty-first Year, 1894. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by G. T. Porritt, F.L.S. Vol. VII. 
The first portion of the Geometrae. Twenty-two Plates. 
8vo. 



FEINTED BY ADLAED AND SON, 
BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE, E.C., AND 20, HANOVER SQUARE, W. 



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